A three-level hierarchical model assessed the combined effects of a multilevel approach to the explanation of injury severity in a sample of jaywalker-car collisions that occurred in New Jersey between 2006 and 2009.
First-level units were individual jaywalkers who were involved in the collisions. Second-level units were the road segments (spots) of approximately 0.5 miles radius around the point at which at least one collision occurred. The third-level units were municipalities having had at least one collision.
Results indicate that younger jaywalkers, those who wear light clothes, those who cross the road without running or darting, those who are not under the influence of drugs or medication, and those who collide with drivers not driving in a straight strip of road tend to receive less severe injuries. Along with the individual-level factors, significant interaction of some of the second and third-level predictors was found. When roads were dry, wearing light clothing minimizes the severity of injuries. When jaywalkers were under the influence of drugs or medication, greater sidewalk coverage helped to reduce the injury severity. When fewer cars were parked on the roadside to protect against speeding drivers, wearing clear clothing helped to reduce injury level. No moderation effect was found of macro-level factors on micro-level variables predicting injury level. Nonetheless, environmental features like sidewalk coverage, recreation areas nearby, distance to public transportation, population density, and poverty contributed significantly to explain severity of injuries.
|Commitee:||Himmelstein, David, Saegert, Susan, Seley, John, Woolhandler, Stephannie|
|School:||City University of New York|
|School Location:||United States -- New York|
|Source:||DAI-B 73/02, Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Social psychology, Transportation planning, Urban planning|
|Keywords:||Jaywalking, Multilevel modeling, Pedestrians, Public space, Street design|
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