Body mass has been studied in multiple subfields within anthropology, including paleoanthropology, bioarchaeology, biomechanics, and forensics. Most previous studies that focused on predicting mass from the skeleton utilized population averages, living subjects, and/or small sample sizes. This study sought to create an individualized predictive model of body mass estimation from multiple skeletal elements. The new multiple element model was then compared to three models currently used by anthropologists.
Three hypotheses were tested: (1) the multiple element model has a lower predictive error than the other models, (2) upper limb elements will predict mass more accurately and (3) articular dimensions predict mass more accurately. All three hypotheses were rejected in favor of mixed models. The multiple element model predicted mass (for males and females) and the Grine and colleagues femoral head model (for females only) had low predictive error. Both upper and lower limbs as well as diaphyseal and articular dimensions were selected as significant predictors in the multiple element model.
Improved estimation of body mass is used to address our understanding of the behavioral and cultural changes that occurred with the transition to agriculture on the Georgia coast. Social stratification within societies is of great importance in anthropology, as it helps us to see how past peoples interacted, lived, and were organized. In some instances, it becomes difficult to determine when social stratification developed due to a lack of preservation of artifacts indicative of status. In such cases, it is necessary to develop multiple avenues to determine the level of stratification within a society. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) agricultural populations had significantly greater mean mass relative to height (body mass index) than the earlier hunter-gatherers, and (2) agriculturalists display a significantly greater variance, and/or distribution of body mass indices than hunter gatherers. Both hypotheses were rejected as no significant difference in the mean, variance or distribution in BMI values was found between hunter gatherers and agriculturalists. Although a significant difference is not seen between pre-agricultural and agricultural groups, further analyses are warranted before using the distribution of body mass as a proxy for social status are abandoned.
|Advisor:||Pearson, Osbjorn M.|
|Commitee:||Bedrick, Edward, Edgar, Heather JH, Konigsberg, Lyle|
|School:||The University of New Mexico|
|School Location:||United States -- New Mexico|
|Source:||DAI-A 73/01, Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Agriculture, Body mass, Georgia, Georgia coast, Skeleton, Social status|
Copyright in each Dissertation and Thesis is retained by the author. All Rights Reserved
The supplemental file or files you are about to download were provided to ProQuest by the author as part of a
dissertation or thesis. The supplemental files are provided "AS IS" without warranty. ProQuest is not responsible for the
content, format or impact on the supplemental file(s) on our system. in some cases, the file type may be unknown or
may be a .exe file. We recommend caution as you open such files.
Copyright of the original materials contained in the supplemental file is retained by the author and your access to the
supplemental files is subject to the ProQuest Terms and Conditions of use.
Depending on the size of the file(s) you are downloading, the system may take some time to download them. Please be