Beam-column joints in concrete buildings are key components to ensure structural integrity of building performance under seismic loading. Earthquake reconnaissance has reported the substantial damage that can result from inadequate beam-column joints. In some cases, failure of older-type corner joints appears to have led to building collapse.
Since the 1960s, many advances have been made to improve seismic performance of building components, including beam-column joints. New design and detailing approaches are expected to produce new construction that will perform satisfactorily during strong earthquake shaking. Much less attention has been focused on beam-column joints of older construction that may be seismically vulnerable. Concrete buildings constructed prior to developing details for ductility in the 1970s normally lack joint transverse reinforcement. The available literature concerning the performance of such joints is relatively limited, but concerns about performance exist.
The current study aimed to improve understanding and assessment of seismic performance of unconfined exterior and corner beam-column joints in existing buildings. An extensive literature survey was performed, leading to development of a database of about a hundred tests. Study of the data enabled identification of the most important parameters and the effect of each parameter on the seismic performance.
The available analytical models and guidelines for strength and deformability assessment of unconfined joints were surveyed and evaluated. In particular, The ASCE 41 existing building document proved to be substantially conservative in joint shear strength estimation. Upon identifying deficiencies in these models, two new joint shear strength models, a bond capacity model, and two axial capacity models designed and tailored specifically for unconfined beam-column joints were developed. The proposed models strongly correlated with previous test results.
In the laboratory testing phase of the current study, four full-scale corner beam-column joint subassemblies, with slab included, were designed, built, instrumented, tested, and analyzed. The specimens were tested under unidirectional and bidirectional displacement-controlled quasi-static loading that incorporated varying axial loads that simulated overturning seismic moment effects. The axial loads varied between tension and high compression loads reaching about 50% of the column axial capacity. The test parameters were axial load level, loading history, joint aspect ratio, and beam reinforcement ratio. The test results proved that high axial load increases joint shear strength and decreases the deformability of joints failing in pure shear failure mode without beam yielding. On the contrary, high axial load did not affect the strength of joints failing in shear after significant beam yielding; however, it substantially increased their displacement ductility. Joint aspect ratio proved to be instrumental in deciding joint shear strength; that is the deeper the joint the lower the shear strength. Bidirectional loading reduced the apparent strength of the joint in the uniaxial principal axes. However, circular shear strength interaction is an appropriate approximation to predict the biaxial strength. The developed shear strength models predicted successfully the strength of test specimens.
Based on the literature database investigation, the shear and axial capacity models developed and the test results of the current study, an analytical finite element component model based on a proposed joint shear stress-rotation backbone constitutive curve was developed to represent the behavior of unconfined beam-column joints in computer numerical simulations of concrete frame buildings. The proposed finite element model included the effect of axial load, mode of joint failure, joint aspect ratio and axial capacity of joint. The proposed backbone curve along with the developed joint element exhibited high accuracy in simulating the test response of the current test specimens as well as previous test joints.
Finally, a parametric study was conducted to assess the axial failure vulnerability of unconfined beam-column joints based on the developed shear and axial capacity models. This parametric study compared the axial failure potential of unconfined beam-column joint with that of shear critical columns to provide a preliminary insight into the axial collapse vulnerability of older-type buildings during intense ground shaking.
|Advisor:||Moehle, Jack P.|
|Commitee:||Dreger, Douglas, Stojadinovic, Bozidar|
|School:||University of California, Berkeley|
|Department:||Civil and Environmental Engineering|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||DAI-B 72/12, Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Geophysical, Civil engineering|
|Keywords:||Beam columns, Concrete buildings, Joints, Seismic vulnerability, Transverse reinforcement|
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