The consequences of the globalization process have created opportunities for traditional organized crime (OC) groups operating on the national level to transform into transnational criminal organizations (TOC). One of these criminal organizations that has globalized successfully is Turkish organized crime. The geographic position of Turkey, increasing demand for illicit trade, immigrants from developing countries in Turkey, Turkish Diaspora communities in different regions of the world, and obstacles to effective law enforcement cooperation are some of the factors that present opportunities for Turkish groups to operate globally. This study has analyzed where and how Turkish OC groups have globalized. Using social network, quantitative and qualitative data analyses, this study aims to examine the globalization of Turkish OC from various perspectives, makes specific policy analyses and recommends new effective policies.
The study finds that OC groups operating in Turkey and Turkish criminal organizations in Europe whose members are composed mainly of Turkish immigrants operate globally by having criminal networks in different regions of the world. TOC groups in Turkey are some of the most dominant criminal organizations operating on the Balkans route. Moreover, TOC groups in Turkey operate in loosely-organized networks of cells, and their group structures fit well the characteristics of transnational criminal groups. Turkish organized crime groups have linkages with transnational criminal organizations operating in the Middle East, and the Caucasus, as well as Central Asian and Western African countries. Turkish organized crime groups are not present in these regions. Immigrants from those regions in Turkey have provided connections between Turkish groups and criminal organizations in their home countries. The main activities of Turkish groups in those regions are to collaborate in drug trafficking, human smuggling and human trafficking. The situation of Turkish groups in Europe is different. They either operate independently or provide connections to criminal groups in Turkey. They have operated mainly in drug trafficking, human smuggling, human trafficking, cigarette smuggling, and arms smuggling, especially dominating high percentages of the heroin trafficking market in Europe. Recently, they have exchanged some kinds of drugs trafficked by other criminal organizations with heroin. They have collaborated with other criminal groups and have laundered a significant amount of crime money in Turkey. Policies on the national and global levels are required against Turkish TOC groups. The capacity of the law enforcement in Turkey should be increased, and obstacles related to effective international cooperation should be eliminated.
|School:||George Mason University|
|School Location:||United States -- Virginia|
|Source:||DAI-A 72/01, Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||International law, Criminology, Public policy|
|Keywords:||Criminal networks, Globalization, Immigration, Policy response, State-behind organizations, Transnational organized crime, Turkey, Turkish organized crime|
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