This dissertation discusses the historical and political determinants in the formation and choice of constitutional systems. Historically, parliamentary systems evolved from monarchic regimes. British colonial structures also favored the installation for parliamentary systems in localized colonies, mostly those in the Caribbean and Countries as Canada and Australia. On the other hand, national liberation movements, since the nineteenth century, have consistently pushed countries into presidential systems. Political independence in non European countries, where monarchs were not available, posed problems of national representation and defense in the design of the new institutions, setting the conditions for the creation of government systems other than parliamentary monarchies. Concerning civil-military relations, the military were also very important in European monarchies in resisting democracy and full parliamentary government, as well as in supporting the sovereign powers of monarchs in military and foreign policy matters. In new republics the military were also supportive of increasing the powers of the presidency and toppling democratic regimes. Military are indifferent between presidential regimes and parliamentary systems as long as they keep their autonomy and direct access to the sovereign. In this respect, the constitutional definition of the office of the commander-in-chief is among the most significant concerns of the military to guarantee this access.
|Commitee:||cohen, youssef, manin, bernard, pasquino, pasquale, wantchekon, leonard|
|School:||New York University|
|School Location:||United States -- New York|
|Source:||DAI-A 71/07, Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Comparative constitutions, Multinomial probit, Political transitions|
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