West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen of public health importance worldwide. Environmental and socioeconomic factors can significantly influence WNV human transmission risk by altering the likelihood of exposure to infected mosquito vectors. This study utilized a case-control approach based on geographic location to explore the association between the risk of vector-borne WNV and habitat, landscape, virus activity, and socioeconomic parameters in Suffolk County, NY. Eco-epidemiology conceptual framework was applied through Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to develop a logistic regression model to investigate factors predictive of the presence of acute WNV human cases at geographic household locations in 2000-04. Positive associations with WNV risk in the model included the following environmental factors: natural vegetation (p = .051) and road (p = .031) fragmentation, wetlands (p = .046), and geographic proximity to WNV mosquito activity (p = .001). Environmental factors negatively associated with WNV human risk included woody wetlands ( p = .001), groundwater recharge basins (p = .087), and proximity to tidal wetlands (p < .001). Among socioeconomic factors, proportion of population with college education was positively predictive of WNV risk (p < .001), while household income ( p < .033) and senior households (p < .001) had a negative association with WNV risk. Two additional factors, wetland fragmentation and vacant housing, were not statistically significant at p < .1, but improved the model’s accuracy. <p> The resulting WNV risk map was verified with a 2005-08 WNV human case dataset. The 2000-04 dataset’s risk map sensitivity of 89% was significantly higher than 55% for the 2005-08 dataset (p = .031). However, higher proportion of WNV human cases (>90%) were located inside or in close proximity to the high risk areas than expected by chance (p = .023).
This study contributed to a better understanding of factors associated with WNV human risk generating a sub-county level epidemiological map, which is expected to enhance WNV surveillance and control efforts. The novel approach employed herein may be implemented by other municipal, local, or state public health agencies to improve geographic risk estimates for vector-borne diseases based on a small number of acute human cases.
|Advisor:||Campbell, Scott R.|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||DAI-B 71/05, Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Ecology, Public health, Virology, Epidemiology, Environmental science|
|Keywords:||GIS, Habitat fragmentations, New York, Risk map, Socioeconomic, West Nile virus|
Copyright in each Dissertation and Thesis is retained by the author. All Rights Reserved
The supplemental file or files you are about to download were provided to ProQuest by the author as part of a
dissertation or thesis. The supplemental files are provided "AS IS" without warranty. ProQuest is not responsible for the
content, format or impact on the supplemental file(s) on our system. in some cases, the file type may be unknown or
may be a .exe file. We recommend caution as you open such files.
Copyright of the original materials contained in the supplemental file is retained by the author and your access to the
supplemental files is subject to the ProQuest Terms and Conditions of use.
Depending on the size of the file(s) you are downloading, the system may take some time to download them. Please be