Since the inception of the deinstitutionalization movement two decades ago, agencies serving people with developmental disabilities have focused on the independence needs of their clients. To guide the work they undertake, agencies usually use two primary conceptual frameworks: "Normalization" and "Self-determination." In the Normalization framework, agencies work to integrate people with developmental disabilities into the larger community in the areas of work, habitation, and education. The self-determination framework is used to help people with developmental disabilities gain as much personal control over their lives as possible. While people with developmental disabilities used to have a life-expectancy of 30-40 years, average life-expectancy has risen to approximately 50-70 years. This means that independence training has become critical as people with developmental disabilities have begun to outlive their caretakers. This issue challenges not only organizations serving people with developmental disabilities, but individuals and society as well.
|School:||California State University, Long Beach|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||MAI 48/02M, Masters Abstracts International|
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