Ernest Hemingway's independent, free-spirited, pleasure-seeking characters in his early novels reflect many principles of secular existentialist freedom. However, his presentation of characters in his later fiction changes dramatically. The protagonist Robert Jordan in For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) reflects a much more sacrificing, socially responsible orientation toward life, especially in regard to love and to commitment toward others. A more helpful way to understand the values represented by Robert Jordan would be to examine him, and to compare him systematically and thoroughly to other protagonists of other great novels by Hemingway, not only through the secular existentialist principles of Jean-Paul Sartre, but also through the theories of social development presented by social psychologist and psychoanalyst Erich Fromm and, to a lesser extent, by the Christian existentialist principles of Soren Kierkegaard. A deeper understanding of the transition of protagonists toward Jordan may help us to understand better the complexities of Hemingway, both as an author and as an individual.
|Advisor:||Ravitz, Abe C.|
|School:||California State University, Dominguez Hills|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||MAI 48/04M, Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Modern history, American literature|
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