Background & significance. One in four African-American women over 55 is diabetic. Approximately 480,000 women over 50 are primary caregivers of their grandchildren. It is estimated that 25% of American-American primary caregiving grandmothers are diabetic. Clinical evidence suggests that African-American primary caregiving grandmothers have less time for diabetes self management activities and poorer diabetic because of caregiving responsibilities, yet no studies have verified these clinical observations.
Specific aims. (1) To compare the diabetes self-management activities of African-American primary caregiving grandmothers before and after the initiation of caregiving; (2) compare the diabetic self management activities of African-American primary caregiving grandmothers to diabetic African-American women who are not the primary caregivers of their grandchildren; and, (3) compare the diabetic health of African-American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetic African-American women who are not the primary caregivers of their grandchildren.
Methodology. 68 African-American diabetic women 55-75 years of age were recruited and placed into either the caregiving or non-caregiving group. Self-management activities was measured using a questionnaire collecting data on the frequency of home glucose monitoring, diet, exercise, daily foot exams, and eye exams. Grandmothers were asked about these activities before and after the initiation of caregiving. Measures of diabetic health included BMI, blood pressure, HgbA1c, total cholesterol, urine protein and urine creatinine.
Results. Statistically significant differences were noted among the following: Specific aim #1 (caregivers before and after the initiation of caregiving): number of days eating a healthy diet per week ( t=4.400, p=0.000) and home glucose monitoring per week (t=3.484, p=0.000). Specific aim #2 (caregiver vs. noncaregiver): number of SMBG tests per week (t=-3.855, p=0.000) and in the number of eye exams per year (t=-3.211, p=0.001). Specific aim #3 (caregiver vs. noncaregiver): statistically significant differences were found in systolic pressure ( t=-3.42, p=0.001), diastolic pressure ( t=-3.790, p=0.000), and urine protein ( W=294.00, p=0.000).
Conclusion. Diabetic African-American primary caregiving grandmothers may have a decreased ability to integrate self-management activities (SMBG, healthy diet, eye exams) into their daily patterns of living. Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures along with the difference in the urine protein suggest that diabetic African-American primary caregiving grandmothers may have some difficulty maintaining their diabetic health compared to diabetic non caregiving African-American women.
|School:||University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences|
|School Location:||United States -- Arkansas|
|Source:||DAI-B 70/04, Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||African-American, Caregiving, Diabetes, Grandmothers, Health|
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