In order to examine effective behaviors and efficacy, this study examined the relationships between the self-reflection of effective practices by principals and teachers, as assessed by self-efficacy scales, and student achievement, as evaluated by the state assessment program. Other studies determined that effective behaviors preceded and followed higher scores in efficacy. The study was conducted in the nine elementary schools of one suburban school district in the Midwest. All elementary principals and each elementary teacher were invited to participate in a short survey. In Phase One of this study, relationships between the school leaders' sense of efficacy and the teachers' sense of efficacy were investigated. The dependent variable was the elementary teachers' sense of efficacy, measured by teachers self-evaluating their efficacy in student engagement, instructional skills, and classroom management. The independent variable was the principals' sense of efficacy, measured by principals self-rating their efficacy in instructional leadership and school management skills. Teachers were compared by levels of experience: novice (one to four years), experienced (five to ten years), and expert (more than ten years).
Phase One data were evaluated using analysis of variance between groups (ANOVA). Factor analysis compared teacher and principal efficacy results with the size of school student population and the socio-economic levels of the student population based on percentages of students eligible for free and reduced lunch. Significant effects were found in teacher efficacy means for both enrollment and socio-economic level of schools. Teachers had higher efficacy in schools with smaller enrollments and lower student socio-economic levels.
In Phase Two of this study, relationships between the average sense of efficacy found in the two groups in Phase One and student achievement data were investigated. Student achievement for two years was measured by the state assessment program data for communication arts and mathematics in grades three, four, and five. Phase Two data were analyzed using t-tests. No significant effects were found in Phase Two, although principal efficacy scores tended to trend positively with student achievement scores. The study found support for the use of efficacy scales as formative assessment tools for administrators and teachers.
|Advisor:||Everson, Susan T.|
|School:||Saint Louis University|
|School Location:||United States -- Missouri|
|Source:||DAI-A 70/10, Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||School administration, Elementary education|
|Keywords:||Achievement, Principal efficacy, Principals, Self-efficacy, Student achievement, Teacher efficacy|
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