The sport of Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) in the United States has grown considerably since the first national scuba certification in 1959. It was projected that by 2010 there would be 3.34 million divers (Leeworthy et al., 2005). Buttner (2007) reported that annual dive equipment sales were about $1 billion while the travel aspect of the dive industry was close to $20 billion. It is important to investigate the growing impact of underwater risk recreation participants. The study identified scuba specific values and explored if types of divers existed based on demographic and psychographic variables. Forty divers from Key Largo were interviewed via means-ends laddering technique (Reynolds & Gutman, 1988) and seven scuba specific values were identified: Social Integration (SI), Fun (F), Excitement (E), Sense of Belonging (SB), Challenge (C), Social Recognition (SR), and Self-Esteem (SE). A ScubaVals instrument was developed. 377 completed and valid surveys were used in the main study. The survey comprised of: (a) dive behavior and psychographic variables; (b) ScubaVals; and (c) demographics. The LISREL program was used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis on ScubaVals. Twenty-seven of the 43 ScubaVals items were retained and the Lambda X values of the final model ranged from .08 to .93. The model was a fair fit with χ2 /df ratio = 3.2, RMSEA = .077, GFI = .84 and SRMR = .08. Data were also analyzed using SPSS with rejection level set at α = .05. People who dived in Key Largo typically were male, married, educated and affluent. They made two or more dive trips annually, were advanced certified, etc. Cluster analysis results suggested a fairly homogeneous group based on ScubaVals. Factorial ANOVAs were conducted for each of the ScubaVals constructs and five main effects were found. There were Income effects for SI, C, and SE. There were Equipment effects for SB and SE. Key Largo divers did significantly differ in their ScubaVals scores, based on annual household income and use of optional technology driven dive equipment. Study results will be useful to all dive constituents.
|Advisor:||Knapp, Douglas H.|
|Commitee:||Fielding, Lawrence W., Mobley, Tony A., Smith, Daniel C.|
|Department:||School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation|
|School Location:||United States -- Indiana|
|Source:||DAI-A 69/02, Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Social studies education, Recreation|
|Keywords:||Consumers, Leisure, Means end theory, Means-end analysis, Recreational sport, Scuba diving, Values|
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