Salvia subgenus Calosphace (Lamiaceae), the largest of 5 subgenera with some 500 species and strongly supported as monophyletic, has received no comprehensive systematic research since the initial establishment of 91 taxonomic sections. Representative taxa of 73 sections of Calosphace were sampled to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and identify major lineages using chloroplast (intergenic spacer, psbA-trnH) and nuclear DNA (ribosomal spacer region, ITS). Phylogenetic analysis of the combined data set established the monophyly of nine sections (Blakea, Corrugatae, Dusenostachys, Erythrostachys, Hastatae, Incarnatae, Microsphace, Nobiles, and Sigmoideae) and four major lineages (S. axillaris, "Hastatae clade", "Uliginosae clade", and "Core Calosphace") corresponding with the four major stamen types identified within the subgenus. Disjunct sections spanning two or more centers of diversity are not supported by the results; no more than seven dispersal events to South America are required to account for the current disjunct distributions. One member of the subgenus, Salvia divinorum is hallucinogenic and used in traditional healing ceremonies by the Mazatecs of Mexico. It was classified within section Dusenostachys and hypothesized to be an interspecific hybrid. Multiple DNA regions (ITS, trnL-trnF, and psbA-trnH) of 52 species representing the major lineages of subgenus Calosphace and six accessions of S. divinorum were sequenced to test its phylogenetic position and putative hybridity. Salvia divinorum should not be classified within Dusenostachys nor is it a hybrid according to the results; its closest relative is S. venulosa, a Colombian endemic. In addition to S. divinorum, there are many other Calosphace species that are used medicinally in North and South America. Ethnobotanical data was gathered for 150 species; those sharing the common names, medicinal uses, appearances, and similar compounds associated into medicinal plant complexes. Five new, previously undocumented complexes were identified: Mirto (5 spp. used extensively in the treatment of susto and other illnesses in Mexico), Ñucchu (7 spp. used as a symbolic element in religious processions and in the treatment of respiratory ailments in Peru), Lí'l++ (3 spp. used for food and medicine by the Chianantec), Cantueso (2 spp. used for respiratory ailments in Mexico), and Manga-paqui (3 spp. used for kidney and liver problems in Ecuador).
|Commitee:||Columbus, J. Travis, Waines, J. Giles|
|School:||University of California, Riverside|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||DAI-B 70/03, Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Calosphace, Ethnobotany, Hallucinogenic sage, Molecular systematics, Psychoactive plants, Salvia, Salvia divinorum|
Copyright in each Dissertation and Thesis is retained by the author. All Rights Reserved
The supplemental file or files you are about to download were provided to ProQuest by the author as part of a
dissertation or thesis. The supplemental files are provided "AS IS" without warranty. ProQuest is not responsible for the
content, format or impact on the supplemental file(s) on our system. in some cases, the file type may be unknown or
may be a .exe file. We recommend caution as you open such files.
Copyright of the original materials contained in the supplemental file is retained by the author and your access to the
supplemental files is subject to the ProQuest Terms and Conditions of use.
Depending on the size of the file(s) you are downloading, the system may take some time to download them. Please be