Introduction. Several studies have reported a positive association of body mass index (BMI) with multiple myeloma; however, the period of adulthood where BMI is most important remains unclear. In addition, it is well known that body fat is associated with both sex-steroid hormone storage and with increasing insulin levels; therefore, it was hypothesized that the association between obesity and multiple myeloma may be attributed to increased aromatization of androgen in adipose tissue. Objective. The overall objective of this case-control study was to determine whether multiple myeloma cases had higher BMI and greater adult weight gain relative to healthy controls. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that hormone replacement therapy use among women will further increase the association between BMI and risk of multiple myeloma. This study used data from a pilot case-control study at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC), entitled Etiology of multiple myeloma, directed by Dr. Sara Strom and Dr. Sergio Giralt. Methods. The pilot study recruited a total of 122 cases of histopathologically confirmed multiple myeloma from MDACC. Controls (n=183) were selected from a database of random digit dialing controls accrued in the Department of Epidemiology at MDACC and were frequency matched to the cases on age (±5 years), gender, and race/ethnicity. Demographic and risk factor information were obtained from all participants who completed a self-administered questionnaire. Items included in the questionnaire include demographic information, height and weight at age 25, 40 and current/diagnosis, medical history, family history of cancer, smoking and alcohol use. Statistical analysis. Initial descriptive analysis included Student's t-test and Pearson's chi-squared tests. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to quantify the association between the variables of interest and multiple myeloma. A multivariable model will be developed using unconditional logistic regression. Results. MM cases were 1.79 times (95% CI=0.99-3.32) more likely to have been overweight or obese (BMI > 25 kg/m2) at age 25 relative to healthy controls after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicty, education and family history of cancer. Being overweight or obese at age 40 was not significantly associated with mutliple myeloma risk (OR=1.42, 95% CI=0.86-2.34) nor was being overweight or obses at diagnosis (OR=1.43, 95% CI=0.78, 2.63). We observed a statistically significant 2-fold increased odds of multiple myeloma in individuals who gained more than 4.7 kg during between 25 and 40 years (OR=1.97, 95% CI=1.15-3.39). When assessing HRT as a modifier of the BMI and multiple myeloma association among women (N=123), no association between obesity and MM status was observed among women who have never used HRT (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.23-1.61; n=73). Yet among women who have ever used HRT (n=50), being overweight or obese was associated with an increase in MM risk (OR=2. 93, 95% CI=0.81-10.6) after adjusting for age; however, the association was not statistically significant. Significance. This study provides further evidence that increased BMI increases the risk of multiple myeloma. Furthermore, among women, HRT use may modify risk of disease.
|Advisor:||Waring, Stephen C.|
|Commitee:||Chan, Wenyaw, Coker, Ann, Strom, Sara S.|
|School:||The University of Texas School of Public Health|
|Department:||Epidemiology & Disease Control|
|School Location:||United States -- Texas|
|Source:||DAI-B 68/11, Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Body mass index, Case-control, Multiple myeloma, Obesity|
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