This thesis describes the growth and characterization of thin films in the SrO-BaO-TiO2 system. The films are grown by molecular beam cpitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on ceramic substrates, and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), reflection-high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Films are grown with varied global and initial local stoichiometries, with the goal of determining the stability of specific cation organizations.
Simple oxides, TiO2 (anatase) and SrO (rock salt) were grown on oxide substrates using MBE. Growth conditions, including substrate material, substrate temperature, O3 flux, and metal flux, are varied in each case. It is observed that the growth morphology of anatase is highly dependent on the ozone flux, with fluxes of 1.00 sccm and greater resulting in flat anatase surfaces. Increased roughness at higher substrate was determined to be a result of rutile inclusions. Growth oscillations are observed in the RHEED intensity for both TiO2 and SrO in overlapping regions of growth space, indicating 2D growth modes.
Varied shuttering sequences were used during MBE growth of perovskites: globally non-stoichiometric films, as well as locally non-stoichiometric but globally stoichiometric perovskite. Films were grown within a (SrO) m(TiO2)n framework, where growth cycles involved m monolayers of SrO followed by n monolayers of TiO2. XRD results indicate that Ruddlesden-Popper defects, that is, rock salt double layers, enable incorporation of all levels of Sr excess, whereas excess Ti is observed to incorporate into the perovskite structure only at extreme excesses. A series of films with m equal to n were grown; that is, multiple monolayers of SrO deposited followed by multiple monolayers of TiO2. These initially locally non-stoichiometric arrangements interreact to form highly crystalline perovskite, even with layer thicknesses of up to 33 monolayers. The Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 films were characterized for their microwave dielectric properties, and were found to have high dielectric constants (ϵr ∼1300 in each case, implying high tunabilities) but high tan δ values as well. The mechanisms by which the perovskite structure incorporates cation excesses is discussed, and it is argued that two probable mechanisms, one involving plane-sharing of Ti and Sr cations and the other involving rock salt multilayers, also enable the observed transport necessary for multilayer reaction.
Working under the argument that these mechanisms involve low-energy architectures, a novel homologous series of phases based on rock salt multilayers is grown using monotayer control: the SrmTiO2+ m series, with each TiO2 monolayer followed by m SrO monolayers (m = 1-5). The phases in this series were characterized structurally, and an in-plane contraction was observed between the m = 2 and m = 3 phases, which is argued to be a relaxation of the SrO monolayers. Considering Ti-excess organizations, the BaTi2O5 structure is grown and observed to nucleate over a narrow window of growth conditions and substrates. LaAlO 3(100) promotes the nucleation of anatasc and ejection of perovskite; SrTiO3(100) promotes the nucleation of perovskite and ejection of TiO2; importantly, MgO(100) promotes the nucleation (010)-oriented BaTi2O5 growing with multiple domains. A BaTi2 O5 buffer layer was then used to promote the inclusion of Sr into (Ba,SOTi205 epilayers. Sr incorporation into a perovskite-related structure was observed to occur over the full range of (Ba,Sr)Ti2O 5 compositions.
|Advisor:||Skowronski, Marek, Salvador, Paul|
|School:||Carnegie Mellon University|
|School Location:||United States -- Pennsylvania|
|Source:||DAI-B 69/01, Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Barium oxide, Film growth, Perovskites, Strontium oxide, Titanium oxide|
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