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Dissertation/Thesis Abstract

The Impact of Sleep Restriction on Subjective Sensations of Appetite and Food Cravings: A Quantitative Study in Healthy Men
by James, Amy Kathleen, M.S., California State University, Long Beach, 2020, 58; 28031066
Abstract (Summary)

Sleep is a biological imperative. However, rates of sleep restriction continue to climb and closely parallel the rising rates of overweight and obesity. The relationship between sleep restriction and changes in weight status have now been recognized for over 5 decades. However, the exact mechanism underpinning this relationship remains unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the interactions amongst sleep restriction, changes in subjective sensations of appetite and food cravings and the hormones that typify the human stress response: testosterone and cortisol.

Healthy men (n=24) were randomized to either the clamped or unclamped conditions. The clamped group received ketoconazole to block all endogenous steroidogenesis, where after both testosterone and cortisol were administered back in a diurnally appropriate and physiologic manner. The unclamped group received placebo, and testosterone and cortisol were able to change freely with conditions. Both groups were subjected to 4 nights of in-laboratory sleep restriction of 4 hours per night. Participants were given daily visual analogue scale (VAS) and modified food craving inventory (FCI) questionnaires that assessed subjective sensations of appetite and specific food cravings. Data from the appetite and food craving questionnaires were then analyzed using a fixed-effects ANOVA and post hoc analyses.

Results of the analysis revealed that when compared to the clamped group the unclamped group scored significantly higher for hunger and prospective food consumption (p < 0.001) and significantly lower for satisfaction and fullness (p < 0.001) on the VAS assessment of appetite sensations. Results also demonstrated a significant effect of bout on eight items of the VAS questionnaire assessing appetite sensations (p < 0.001) and all FCI subscales of food cravings, except for the “sugars” subscale (p < 0.05). Post hoc analyses showed multiple, significant differences in (x) between the clamped and unclamped groups at various questionnaire administrations. Results of this study point to a significant relationship between sleep restriction, appetite, and the hormones cortisol and testosterone. The results from this study should aid in guiding the direction of future studies with the goal to ultimately explain the relationship between weight status, stress hormones, and sleep.

Indexing (document details)
Advisor: Gray, Virginia
Commitee: Liu, Peter Y, Bross, Rachelle, Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena
School: California State University, Long Beach
Department: Family and Consumer Sciences
School Location: United States -- California
Source: MAI 82/6(E), Masters Abstracts International
Source Type: DISSERTATION
Subjects: Nutrition, Biochemistry, Public health
Keywords: Appetite, Cortisol, Food Cravings, Nutrition, Sleep Restriction, Testosterone, Obesity , Overweight adults, Sleep restrictions, In-laboratory sleep tests, Stress hormones, Weight stress
Publication Number: 28031066
ISBN: 9798698595502
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