This thesis examines the discourse surrounding the purpose, benefits, and adverse impacts of the now cancelled Northern Pass Project (NPP). The NPP was meant to install high-voltage transmission lines from Quebec, Canada through New Hampshire to Massachusetts with the stated end goal of allowing Massachusetts to meet the federal mandate to reduce Green House Gases (GHG). Massachusetts elected officials had and continue to fail in reducing GHG's within the state. In 2007 Governor Patrick wrote a proclamation claiming the state must reduce the GHG measures through any means, new electric generation systems or a combination of reducing GHG output from manufacturing, ground transportation, air, and marine transport equipment. This proclamation opened a door for Eversource and Hydro-Quebec to propose in 2010 a new heavy volume transmission corridor supplying the state with hydro-powered electrical generation.
The state accepted this proposal, but it included bringing the transmission corridor through the length of New Hampshire. Massachusetts focused on remedying the states failure to meet the federal mandate by changing a significant supplier of electric power to a hydropower 'green' source. Yet, the generation plant was 200 miles north of the most northern Massachusetts state border. Massachusetts leadership failed to consider the environmental impact upon New Hampshire to not only construct a transmission corridor or what, if any, environmental harms reflect from the high transmission volume electric lines, transformers and substations over the 200 mile distance to reach the northern Massachusetts border to New Hampshire. Neither did Massachusetts consider the new transmission corridors required to distribute the electric power to substations that would then distribute power to end users.
The installation of any electrical transmission corridor would create immense landscape changes to the environmental integrity of the White Mountains National Forest, the Appalachian Trail, wetlands, farmland, and within the Capitol City of Concord. However, the proposal was not with the highest transmission towers exceeding 150' in height but included the highest electrical current explored to install in the United States. The proposed current was initially 1090 megawatts until the next calculation demanded at least 1,300 megawatts. Typically, long-distance transmission lines do not exceed 750 megawatts of electrical current. The construction project alone would have caused significant permanent damage to the environment of New Hampshire and an additional 50 miles of new transmission corridor construction within the Canadian tundra.
My goal was to investigate the ramifications from all options that could provide a benefit and harm. Through this I unexpectedly discovered contractual liabilities for New Hampshire that would not involve Massachusetts, instead New Hampshire would be exposed to the willful decisions by the Province of Quebec, Hydro-Quebec and Eversource. New Hampshire is a financially poor state because they do not have typical taxes such as purchase sales tax and state income tax. In addition, due to New Hampshire's limited laws to protect the environment and private party ownership rights of their land they are not protected to the right of privacy, enjoyment, full land use, air space above and the land below, therefore, the citizens of New Hampshire would be without strong laws of protection from bully corporations.
Upon discovery the reason for New Hampshire officials and department heads to not speak against the transmission corridor was income driven. Because New Hampshire continues to fail in building adequate state income the proposed utility tax to be paid annually by Eversource and Hydro-Quebec was $30 million dollars. In my opinion the lack of leaderships ability to correctly govern New Hampshire laid the state in the position to be aggressively preyed upon. Thus, it will be useful for me to briefly explain some of the harmful effects of EMF and EMRF.
The electromagnetic field (EMF) and electromagnetic radiation field (EMRF) are known to be harmful so much so that diseases can be acute causing mortality or chronic for life. I examine and explain why and how this occurs on humans as well as animal, plant, and aquatic life. The invisible cannot be ignored because science proves the harms. One could successfully argue that EMF and EMRF signal waves are air contamination and should be included into the Clean Air Act. They should not be measured within Greenhouse Gases (GHG) but should have an independent scale of measurement and harm impact. EMF and EMRF, electrical transmission, microwave signals and satellites should all be included in climate change consequences affecting earth and all living organisms.
In this thesis, I address successful alternative methods to generate electricity that eliminate or significantly reduce what is considered today as long-distance transmission. The systems would at the same time of manufacturing electrical power would resolve a negative environmental impact thereby bringing two benefits under one roof. I will explain other benefits for having small localized generation plants that include hindering or quickly resolving cyber security disruption.
|Advisor:||Hill, Geoffrey B., Dobson, James|
|Department:||Master of Arts in Liberal Studies|
|School Location:||United States -- New Hampshire|
|Source:||MAI 82/4(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Environmental engineering, Electrical engineering, Public policy|
|Keywords:||Electrical, Electromagnetic Field, Greenhouse Gases, Hydropower, Transmission, Waste-to-Energy|
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