Stomata are microscopically small pores in the leaf surface of land plants, through which the leaf tissue is supplied with CO2. To protect the plant from both desiccation and infection by pathogens, a mechanism evolved to adjust the pore width to the plants needs by movement of the surrounding guard cells. A dense signaling network controls these movements and is able to integrate external as well as internal stimuli. Stomatal closure is osmotically driven by the loss of turgor in guard cells caused by efflux of ions such as K+. In this work, we investigated the regulation by phosphorylation of the main K+ efflux channel for stomatal closure, GORK. The following results were obtained with electrophysiological measurements via the DEVC- technique: GORK is phosphorylated by OST1 in a Ca2+- independent and by CBL1/9-CIPK5 as well as CBL1-CIPK23 in a Ca2+-dependent manner. CBL1 anchors CIPK5 at the plasma membrane and must bind Ca2+ for activation of CIPK5. CIPK5 requires both ATP binding and a conformational change for phosphorylation of GORK. For the first time it was shown that the PP2C phosphatase ABI2 interacts directly with an ion channel and inhibits its activity. ABI2 also interacts with the kinases OST1, CIPK5 and CIPK23, implying a control by ABI2 over channel activity in multiple ways. OST1 and ABI2 link GORK regulation with the ABA signaling pathway. Guard cells of gork1-2, cbl1/cbl9 and cipk5-2 are insensitive to MeJA, but not to ABA. This represents a direct connection between JA signal transduction and Ca2+ signaling. In this work, further hints could be found for the complex interplay of the phytohormones ABA, JA and the effector Coronatine of Pseudomonas. Here it was shown for the first time that guard cells respond differently to MeJA and the phytotoxin Coronatine, based on incubation time. Depending on the temporal sequence of perception, ABA and Coronatine act antagonistically on the pore width. Jasmonate signal transduction in guard cells leads to a minor synthesis of ABA as well as protein degradation via the ubiquitin/ 26S proteasome system and initiates stomatal closure requiring ABA receptors (PYR/PYLs). This work describes the JA-controlled regulation of the potassium efflux channel GORK as well as some differential aspects of ABA, JA and Coronatine triggered stomatal movements.
|Advisor:||Becker , Dirk , Berger , Susanne|
|School:||Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)|
|Source:||DAI-C 81/7(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
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