This dissertation provides new insights into the oxidative, pH- and ATP-dependent regulation of the V-ATPase function in A. thaliana. For this purpose the proton transport and its regulation was examined electrophysiologically by patch-clamp experiments on mesophyll cells. Additionally intracellular microelectrodes combined with the application of fluorescence imaging on intact root epidermal cells of A. thaliana seedlings allowed investigation of vacuolar membrane conductance and their regulation via cytosolic calcium in vivo.
The voltage dependency of the V-ATPase was recorded at various luminal pH values by the patch-clamp technique. Furthermore thermodynamic calculations showed a decrease of the proton transport rate per hydrolyzed ATP molecule due to an increase of the vacuolar proton concentration. Different cytosolic and vacuolar pH-values combined with increasing ATP-concentrations also provided deeper insights into the principles of the pH dependent regulation of the V-ATPase activity.
Changes in the cytosolic and luminal pH values on either side of the membrane were found to affect the entire function of the enzyme and thus seem to be transferred to the other side within the V-ATPase. Additionally the data of this dissertation was used by Prof. Dr. Ingo Dreyer (University Politecnica, Madrid, Spain) in the context of cooperation to create a mathematic model. It confirms a feedback system of the proton concentration on the maximum proton transport rate (vmax) and the ATP binding affinity (Km). This model proposes a pH-dependent dissociation of the protons from the V-ATPase also under unfavorable intracellular conditions. Further examinations of the V-ATPase regulation with different mutants in collaboration with Jun. Prof. Dr. Thorsten Seidel and co-workers (University of Bielefeld, Germany) revealed oxidative inhibition of V-ATPase activity due to the removal of disulfide-bond formation within the pump protein. Additionally a possible effect of disulfide-bridge formation on proton coupling rate was shown.
The intracellular microelectrode measurements on intact root cells in the second part demonstrate that changes in the vacuolar membrane conductance of A. thaliana atrichoblasts are related to stress factors caused by the impalement of the electrodes. Further studies by a new method combining the application of fluorescence imaging with the two-electrode voltage-clamp allowed recording of calcium changes and electric membrane conductance within trichoblasts simultaneously. As a result it could be shown that a transient rise of cytosolic calcium is linked to increasing currents of vacuolar membrane conductances in vivo. The unknown origin of these conductances however has to be dedicated to known transport proteins.
|Advisor:||Hedrich , Rainer|
|School:||Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)|
|Source:||DAI-C 81/7(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
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