In the scope of this thesis Charge Density Modulations (CDM) on surfaces of three different sample systems are examined with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). The sample systems include chromium on tungsten(110), bulk IrTe2, and iron on rhodium(001). The experimental results help to analyze the temperature dependence of phase transitions and the interaction between magnetic and electronic properties. Chromium (Cr) belongs to the basic transition metals and exhibits both a classical Charge Density Wave (CDW) and a Spin Density Wave (SDW). The data of Cr-islands on tungsten(110) presented in this work connects already known properties of the bulk material and ultrathin films. For local island thicknesses dCr ≈ 4nm the electronic properties show the onset of a CDW-gap, which is linked to the coexistent vanishing of magnetic contrast. The suppression of magnetic contrast can be explained by a rotation of the spinvector Q. This has been shown by spin-polarized STM (SP-STM). The CDW vanishes again for dCr ≤ 3nm. Additional to CDW and SDW a Moiré-pattern exists at thicknesses dCr ≤ 3nm caused by the lattice mismatch between chromium and tungsten. IrTe2 is currently a hot topic in physical science and shows a CDM with a coexisting transformation of the atomic lattice. A first-order phase transition occurs at the transition temperature TC ≈ 275K and results in a modulation with the wave-vector q = 1/5(1, 1, 0). The performance of temperature-dependent STM measurements helps to extend the phase diagram of IrTe2 with a second first-order phase transition at TS ≈ 180K. Within this phase transition the density of Te-dimers increases and the (001)-surface of IrTe2 develops into in a ground state with the wave vector q = 1/6(1, 1, 0). Both phase transitions are affected by the sample quality and the surface preparation and therefore proceed decelerated. It was possible to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the domain growth with the analysis of the surface dynamics in real space . The last part of this thesis deals with ultrathin iron layers on rhodium (001). On top of an iron (Fe) film with a thickness of two atomic layers some bias-dependent, electronic modulations perpendicular to each apper. The wavevectors q1 = [(0, 31 ± 0, 04), 0, 0] and q2 = [0, (0, 31 ± 0, 04), 0] are orientated along the - and -direction. Temperature dependent measurements show a continuous decrease of the electronic signal when warming up the sample. This behavior is characteristic for a second-order phase transition. The CDM is also visible on iron films with three and four atomic layers thickness. With increasing film thickness the wavevectors are still oriented in the same directions,but the periodicity decreases. SP-STM measurements show antiferromagnetic c(2×2)-ordering on the monolayer iron. The thin films develop ferromagnetism out-of-plane for coverages 1ML ≤ θ ≤ 3,5ML. These results present for the first time in real space the coeval appearance of an electronic and magnetic phase in a pure 3d-transition metal.
|Advisor:||Bode , Matthias , Reinert , Friedrich|
|School:||Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)|
|Source:||DAI-C 81/7(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Charge density waves|
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