Polyketides (PK) and nonribosomal peptides (NRP) are two large classes of natural products showing a great variety in structure and function. They are produced as secondary metabolites by a range of bacteria, fungi and plants and exhibit a wealth of pharmacologically important activities, including antimicrobial, antifungal, antitumor or antiparasitic properties. The vast majority of bacterial producers belong to the phylum Firmicutes, especially to the genera Bacillus, Streptomyces and Mycobacterium. With the exception of the siderophores enterobactin and yersiniabactin polyketides and nonribosomal peptides are of minor relevance within E. coli. Therefore unexpected was the identification of a new PKS/ NRPS gene cluster in several E. coli strains. The colibactin gene cluster being described for the first time in 2006 by NOUGAYRÈDE et al. is coding for a hybrid system of modular polyketide synthases and nonribosomal petid synthetases as well as editing enzymes and a putative transcriptional regulator (ClbR). The product of these PKS/ NRPS synthases, termed colibactin, induces in vitro a cytopathic effect (CPE) on mammalian cell lines. The cytopathic activity of colibactin is characterized by the induction of double strand breaks in the DNA of eukaryotic cells as well as the arrest of the cell cycle in G2 phase after transient infection with E. coli strains expressing colibactin. In context of this thesis especially the elucidation of the regulation of clb operon transcription and the organisation of transcriptional units within the colibactin-encoding genomic island were of main interest. A transcriptional analysis led to the identification of the transcriptional starting points of most of the relevant genes within the colibactin cluster. Based on these newly obtained information it was possible to perform a sequence analysis of the upstream regions of the genes resulting in the detection of sigma70 depending promoter elements and several putative transcription factor binding sites. Studies on the regulation of the colibactin synthesis could also demonstrate that the expression of colibactin genes are under control of the transcription factor H-NS as well as the colibactin specific regulator ClbR. Beside the studies concerning the structure and regulation of colibactin genes optimization of the nonribosomal peptid-polyketid was object of this work. Therefor performed expression analysis showed an influence of fatty acids and indole, as well as the oxygen availability on the promoter activities of single genes within the colibactin gencluster. Further investigations belonging the transcriptome and the proteome of the Colibactin expressing strain E. coli Nissle 1917 showed an over all influence of Colibactin synthesis on the amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism of this strain. Further more a successful transfer of the pks gene cluster into Pseudomonas putida KT2440 was carried out as well as the demonstration of functionality of colibactin in this host organism. Even though long term stability of the constructed shuttle vector was not given it was shown that Pseudomonas putida is a suitable host for realizing the heterologous expression of colibactin. Additionally to the structural analysis of the pks cluster and the studies on expression of the colibatin genes this thesis questioned on the biological function of Colibactin. Phenotypical examination showed an influence of the iron upake as well as on biofilm formation due to the nonribosomal peptid – polyketide. These are the first evidences that could contribute the elucidation of Colibactin function.
|Advisor:||Hacker , Jörg|
|School:||Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)|
|Source:||DAI-C 81/7(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
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