1 Prolongation of cardiac repolarisation time in the course of psychiatric medication at concurrent genetic baseline risk
Many psychiatric medications are attributed a repolarisation prolonging effect. This adverse drug reaction, evident in a prolonged QT interval in the electrocardiogram, has become the focus of clinical research in recent years due to its association with life-threatening Torsades-de-Pointes tachyarrhythmias. As a consequence of this side effect, many well established and potent drugs have been re-evaluated in depth, and in some cases, this has resulted in a limitation of pharmacological options.
The main mechanism for a drug-induced QT-prolongation is the blockade of cardiac potassium channels. Also, genetic alterations of cardiac ion channels are considered risk factors for a prolonged repolarisation, as well as effects of other ion dependent signalling pathways. Patients with a genetic predisposition for a prolonged repolarisation time suffer a greater risk for a drug-induced QT-prolongation. This is referred to as a “reduced repolarization reserve” (54), with an increased baseline risk for cardiac side effects.
The aim of this study was to quantify individual vulnerability via an additive genetic risk score, and to outline the possibility that this risk can be modulated by regular control of drug serum levels.
From a prospective study of 2062 inpatients of the Centre for Mental Health of the University Clinic Würzburg, diagnosed with endogenous psychosis, we recruited 392 patients (mean age 41.0 ± 15.0 years, 36.2 % women) for a further retrospective survey. Primary inclusion criterion was a conducted serum level measurement of the administered psychiatric medication within three days before or after an electrocardiographic record. These patients were tested on 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with prolonged QT time, and the results were correlated with individual electrocardiographic data.
In a further analysis, known polygenic risk scores, based on four major publications of the international cardiac safety consortium (77-79, 148), were calculated and tested on this patient sample. Either of these scores functions by adding up individual risk by a weighted combination of polymorphisms associated with QT prolongation.
Furthermore, a correlation between medication serum level and repolarisation was investigated in this patient sample. Medication specific sub samples contained patients with Amitriptylin (N = 106), Clomipramin (N = 48), Doxepin (N = 53), Mirtazapin (N = 45), Venlafaxin (N = 50), Aripiprazol (N = 56), Clozapine (N = 127), Haloperidol (N = 41), Olanzapine (N = 37), Perazin (N = 47), Quetiapine (N = 119) and Risperidon (N = 106).
In a subsequent analysis, these medication-specific patient groups were tested in a combined calculation model on the hypothesis of an interconnected correlation of medication serum level and the genetic risk score of Strauss et al. (148) with prolonged QT time
Out of 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms analysed, 13 showed a direct significant correlation with a prolonged QT time in our patient sample. Also, polygenic risk scores correlate well with prolonged cardiac repolarisation and explain a significant percentage of variability.
The genetic risk scores of Pfeufer et al. (77) (R = 0,124, p = 0,014; N = 392), Noseworthy et al. (79) (R = 0,169; p = 0,001; N = 392), as well as Strauss et al. (148) (R = 0,199; p = 0,000; N = 392) showed results in line with previous work and correlated well with prolonged QT-time, whereas the results of Newton-Cheh et al. (78) could not be reproduced (R = 0,029; p = 0,568; N = 392).
Furthermore, in an analysis of medication specific subsamples, a strongly serum level dependent effect on QT-time could be shown for Amitriptyline, Nortriptyline, Clomipramine, and Haloperidol.
Analysis of Amitriptyline subsample (N = 106) showed a significant correlation with QT-time for Nortriptyline (F (1,104) = 5.986; p = .016, R = .233), as well as for the sum of Amitriptyline and Nortriptyline (F (1,104) = 4.408, p = .038, R = .202).
Strong, serum level dependent effects on repolarisation could also be shown for Clomipramine (F (1,46) = 39.589, p < .001, R = .680, N = 48) and Haloperidol (F (1,39) = 12.672, p = .001, N = 41).
A computational model, combining the effects of serum level and the genetic risk score analogous to
Strauss et al. (148), resulted in a higher yield of explained variance than both effects on their own.
QT time has been proven dependent equally on individual genetic predisposition as well as on serum levels of potentially Qt-prolonging medication. These effects seem connectable in an additive way, hence the concept of a reduced repolarisation reserve (54) could be confirmed. A combination of genetic baseline risk and influence on QT-time of medication shows a greater impact on repolarisation time than the respective single effects alone.
Therefore, a preliminary risk evaluation is possible. After a thorough evaluation of risk versus benefit, this could preserve varied therapeutic possibilities by risk modulation via electrocardiographic examination and particularly serum level measurement of medication.
2 Development and Validation of a Dried Blood Spot Method for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Clozapine and Quetiapine
While the technique of extraction and analysis of compounds from dried blood is already known since the 1960s, until recently it was predominantly used rather for diagnostic purposes. Advances in analytical methods, especially due to more sophisticated chromatography and higher sensitivity in signal detection, Dried Blood-Spot Analysis became interesting for blood level measurement of drugs.
In the field of therapeutic drug monitoring, methods applicable to antibiotics, antiepileptic and antiviral drugs, and more recently to antidiabetic compounds, have been published.
Advantages in the terms of sample-handling, as well as a reduced outlay at (point of care) blood withdrawal become more evident by advances in the field of analytics.
The aim was to develop and validate an extraction procedure that allows the combined quantification of the commonly prescribed antipsychotics Clozapine and Quetiapine from a single dried blood spot.
Extraction with a mixture of 99 % Acetonitrile and 1 % 1 M Hydrochloric acid, with subsequent HPLC analysis with back-flush-column switching and photometric detection, was validated according to the guidelines of the Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh) (146).
All requirements regarding linearity, precision, specificity and limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, extraction yield and robustness were met. Therefore, this method is validly applicable and might, after further reviewing therapeutic ranges of capillary whole blood in relation to already defined venous serum samples, find its way into clinical practice.
|Advisor:||Högger, Petra, Deckert, Jürgen|
|School:||Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)|
|Source:||DAI-C 81/7(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
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