Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including the treatment of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, has a significant impact on the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Thus, a healthy diet, adequate physical activity, tobacco control, maintaining normal weight and the treatment of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus, reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
The present work focused on (a) the prevalence and guideline-recommended control of cardiovascular risk factors from the general population of the STAAB cohort study (Characteristics and Course of Heart Failure Stages A-B and Determinants of Progression) and their estimation of the 10-year risk of fatal CVD. Furthermore, we investigated, (b) the influence of medication-related beliefs on blood pressure control from participants of the STAAB cohort study. Finally, we considered (c) the maintenance of physicians-led lifestyle recommendations and their determinants in the STAAB cohort study compared to the EUROASPIRE IV study (European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events) in Germany.
The STAAB cohort study examines the early asymptomatic forms of heart failure stages A and B in a representative sample of 5.000 participants aged 30 to 79 years of the general population of the city of Würzburg.
The EUROASPIRE IV study examined 7.998 patients with CVD aged 18 to 79 years from a total of 24 European countries between 2012 to 2013, including 536 patients from Germany. The Study investigated the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors as well as the guidelinerecommended control care in coronary patients.
The data collection of both studies was performed by trained staff according to standardized operating procedures.
The prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors according to the current guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) was investigated in 1.379 participants who participated in the STAAB cohort study between December 2013 and April 2015.
A high prevalence of hypertension (31.8%), hyperlipidemia (57.6%) and diabetes mellitus (3.5%) was observed. Despite pharmacotherapy, more than half of the participants with high blood pressure (52.7%) or elevated LDL cholesterol levels (56.7%) as well as 44.0% of the persons with diabetes mellitus failed to reach the targets recommended in clincial guidelines. Furthermore, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and an HbA1c-level >6.5% was detected for the first time during study visit in 36.0%, 54.2% and 23.3%, respectively. The highest proportion of unknown cardiovascular risk factors was found in the youngest age group (30-39 years) for high blood pressure (76.5%), high LDL cholesterol (78.0%), and in the age group of 60-69 years for an undetected HbA1c-level of >6.5%. The accumulation of three or more cardiovascular risk factors was associated with male gender, higher age and educational level. Of 980 participants of the STAAB cohort study, 56.6%, 35.8%, and 7.5% were in the low, middle, and high to very high risk group for fatal CHD according to the SCORE risk chart. Participants with a high to very high SCORE risk group were predominantly male and demonstrated a higher prevalence of hypertension or high LDL cholesterol.
The influence of medication-related beliefs on blood pressure control was investigated in 293 participants who participated in the STAAB cohort study from October 2014 to March 2017. Eighty-seven percent of these participants stated that „I sometimes worry about becoming too dependent on my medicines“, followed by the statement „My medicines protect me from becoming worse“ worse (78.1%). There was an inverse association between a higher level of concern about the prescribed antihypertensive medication and a better blood pressure control in women. However, there was no statistically significant association between concerns about antihypertensive medication and blood pressure control in men. No statistically significant associations were found for the necessity of prescribed medication in any model.
The prevalence and determinants for healthy lifestyle advices by physicians were investigated in 665 participants of the STAAB cohort study without previous CVD (primary prevention) and in 536 coronary patients of the EUROASPIRE IV study (secondary prevention).
Except for smoking, patients in EUROASPIRE IV received more frequently healthy lifestyle advices than participants in the STAAB cohort study (smoking abstinence: STAAB 44.0%, EUROASPIRE 36.7%; weight reduction: STAAB 43.9%, EUROASPIRE 69.2%; physical activity: STAAB 52.1%, EUROASPIRE 71.4%; healthy diet: STAAB 43.9%, EUROASPIRE 73.1%). In addition, patients with a pre-existing CVD received significantly more lifestyle advices for diabetes mellitus, whereas the frequency of lifestyle recommendations decreased with advancing age. The analysis of the interaction model showed that the correlation between age and receiving adequate lifestyle advices was more pronounced in patients with existing CVD than in participants without coronary CVD in the STAAB cohort study. Furthermore, the relationship between receiving adequate lifestyle advices and hyperlipidemia was significantly stronger in participants without a coronary event compared to patients with existing CVD. Present results show a considerable potential for improved implementation of guidelinerecommended control of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in primary and secondary prevention. Due to the high number of cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, the importance of long-term consequences of cardiovascular risk factors should be emphasized in physician-patient conversation and taken into account in the development of prevention strategies, especially for younger age groups. Gender-specific determinants regarding the control of cardiovascular risk factors as well as concerns about medication should be given greater consideration in the physician-patient interaction. In order to strengthen the patients compliance of a healthy lifestyle, physicians should be sensitized with regard to the importance of healthy lifestyle advices, but also in dealing with difficult situations, such as the recommendation of weight reduction. Also the correct handling of the guideline recommendations by physicians should be more supported.
|Advisor:||Heuschmann , Peter , Störk , Stefan , Kisker , Caroline|
|School:||Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)|
|Source:||DAI-C 81/8(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Cardiovascular risk factors|
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