Dissertation/Thesis Abstract

Mechanoresponsive Dynamics of Skeletal Stem Cells in the Mammalian Jaw
by Ransom, Ryan Chase, Ph.D., University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 2020, 89; 27960537
Abstract (Summary)

During both embryonic development and adult tissue regeneration, changes in chromatin structure driven by master transcription factors lead to stimulus-responsive transcriptional programs. A thorough understanding of how stem cells in the skeleton interpret mechanical stimuli and enact regeneration would shed light on how forces are transduced to the nucleus in regenerative processes. Here we develop a genetically dissectible mouse model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis—which is a process that is used in humans to correct an undersized lower jaw that involves surgically separating the jaw bone, which elicits new bone growth in the gap. We use this model to show that regions of newly formed bone are clonally derived from stem cells that reside in the skeleton. In parallel, we develop an approach, through the packaging and delivery of 4-hydroxytamoxifen liposomes (LiTMX), that enables localized induction of CreERT2 recombinase in mice. This method permits precise, in vivo, tissue-specific clonal analysis with both spatial and temporal control. Using chromatin and transcriptional profiling, we show that stem-cell populations gain activity within the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signalling pathway, and that inhibiting FAK abolishes new bone formation. Mechanotransduction via FAK in skeletal stem cells during distraction activates a gene-regulatory program and retrotransposons that are normally active in primitive neural crest cells, from which skeletal stem cells arise during development. This reversion to developmental state underlies the robust tissue growth that facilitates stem-cell-based regeneration of adult skeletal tissue.

Indexing (document details)
Advisor: McGehee, Robert E, Longaker, Michael T
Commitee: Wan, Derrick C, Foster, Deshka S, Quarto, Natalina P
School: University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Department: Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences
School Location: United States -- Arkansas
Source: DAI-B 81/11(E), Dissertation Abstracts International
Source Type: DISSERTATION
Subjects: Cellular biology, Surgery, Biomedical engineering
Keywords: Mechanoresponsive dynamics
Publication Number: 27960537
ISBN: 9798643196891
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