Technological advances in artificial intelligence (AI) are promising continuous improvements in problem-solving, perception, and reasoning that are edging closer to human capabilities. AI technologies are raising important questions regarding fundamental issues of organizing, especially regarding the impact of AI on professionals and their work practices. I examine the work practices of professionals facing growing availability of AI tools in their field: medical diagnosis. I draw on ethnographic field data collected across four radiology units within at a major hospital in the United States at the cutting-edge of adopting and evaluating diagnostic AI tools. My data collection and analysis spans processes of developing, evaluating, adopting, and using numerous AI tools over time and in multiple diagnostic contexts. In one chapter, I compare four theoretical approaches to studying technology in organizational processes, answering the question, how does each perspective account for material agency? In the following chapter, I investigate how are professionals using AI tools in their judgment forming processes? I uncover how physicians were experiencing ambiguity throughout their process, and even more so after viewing AI results. I unpack the ways in which they manage this surge in ambiguity and its impact on how AI results are incorporated (or not) into their final diagnosis. These findings contribute to literatures of augmentation, ambiguity, and how professionals experience opaque technologies. In the final chapter, I ask how are managers evaluating which AI tools to adopt in their organizations? I shed light on how organizational leaders are evaluating the potential opportunities and challenges of adopting AI tools and addressing new knowledge issues that emerge. This chapter contributes to literatures on ground truth, technology evaluation practices, and studies of sociomateriality. Overall, the findings of this project illuminate critical challenges to the adoption and evaluation of AI tools that must be understood and addressed if professionals, organizations, and society is to gain the full extent of the transformative promise of AI technologies.
|Advisor:||Levina, Natalia, Lifshitz-Assaf, Hila|
|School:||New York University|
|School Location:||United States -- New York|
|Source:||DAI-A 81/11(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Information Technology, Management|
|Keywords:||Artificial intelligence, Augmentation, Innovation, Medical diagnosis, Opacity, Professional work practices|
Copyright in each Dissertation and Thesis is retained by the author. All Rights Reserved
The supplemental file or files you are about to download were provided to ProQuest by the author as part of a
dissertation or thesis. The supplemental files are provided "AS IS" without warranty. ProQuest is not responsible for the
content, format or impact on the supplemental file(s) on our system. in some cases, the file type may be unknown or
may be a .exe file. We recommend caution as you open such files.
Copyright of the original materials contained in the supplemental file is retained by the author and your access to the
supplemental files is subject to the ProQuest Terms and Conditions of use.
Depending on the size of the file(s) you are downloading, the system may take some time to download them. Please be