The concerns about antibiotic resistance have been growing around the world for several decades. Many researchers have explored the antibiotic levels in waterways, but there have been only a few studies on antibiotics in soils. Research on the fate of antibiotics in soil is a significant research area since antibiotics exist in soil as much as they exist in waterways. Development of a robust and reproducible method for quantifying antibiotics is needed to trace the fate of antibiotics through the environment.
In this study, three different extraction methods, including Soxhlet extraction, ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) was compared for effectiveness of the extraction for two antibiotic classes which are fluoroquinolone and macrolide. Various extraction solvents including the mixtures of acetone, deionized water, and ammonia with different ratio were compared for the extraction solvent. And internal standard method and standard addition method were used for quantitative analysis. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was followed to clean up impurities and to concentrate the analytes after extraction process. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was selected as an analytical instrument for the quantification of antibiotics.
Soxhlet extraction produced very low percent recovery due to the limitation of solvent selection. The solvent combined with acetone, deionized water, and 4% ammonia solution with 2:1:2 ratio was performed well in general with both UAE and MAE. UAE is good choice for laboratories that cannot afford MAE since UAE generated similar recoveries to MAE, however, MAE is better choice in terms of efficiency.
|Advisor:||Tucker, Kevin R.|
|Commitee:||Lin, Zhiqing, Adegboyega, Nathaniel|
|School:||Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville|
|School Location:||United States -- Illinois|
|Source:||MAI 81/6(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Environmental science, Chemistry|
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