Dissertation/Thesis Abstract

Atomically Precise Fabrication and Characterization of Donor-based Quantum Devices in Silicon
by Wang, Xiqiao, Ph.D., University of Maryland, College Park, 2019, 324; 13902720
Abstract (Summary)

Atomically precise donor-based quantum devices in silicon are a promising candidate for scalable solid-state quantum computing and analog quantum simulation. This thesis demonstrates success in fabricating state-of-the-art silicon-phosphorus (Si:P) quantum devices with atomic precision. We present critical advances towards fabricating high-fidelity qubit circuitry for scalable quantum information processing that demands unprecedented precision and reproducibility to control and characterize precisely placed donors, electrodes, and the quantum interactions between them.

We present an optimized atomically precise fabrication scheme with improved process control strategies to encapsulate scanning tunneling microscope (STM)-patterned devices and technological advancements in device registration and electrical contact formation that drastically increase the yield of atomic-precision fabrication.

We present an atomic-scale characterization of monolayer step edges on Si (100) surfaces using spatially resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy and quantitatively determine the impact of step edge density of states on the local electrostatic environment. Utilizing local band bending corrections, we report a significant band gap narrowing behavior along rebonded SB step edges on a degenerately boron-doped Si substrate.

We quantify and control atomic-scale dopant movement and electrical activation in silicon phosphorus (Si:P) monolayers using room-temperature grown locking layers (LL), sputter profiling simulation, and magnetotransport measurements. We explore the impact of LL growth conditions on dopant confinement and show that the dopant segregation length can be suppressed below one Si lattice constant while maintaining good epitaxy. We demonstrate weak-localization measurement as a high-resolution, high-throughput, and non-destructive method in determining the conducting layer thickness in the sub-nanometer thickness regime.

Finally, we present atomic-scale control of tunnel coupling using STM-patterned Si:P single electron transistors (SET). We demonstrate the exponential scaling of tunnel coupling down to the atomic limit by utilizing the Si (100) 2×1 surface reconstruction lattice as a natural ruler with atomic-accuracy and varying the number of lattices counts in the tunnel gaps. We analyze resonant tunneling spectroscopy through atomically precise tunnel gaps as we scale the SET islands down to the few-donor quantum dot regime. Finally, by combining single/few-donor quantum dots with atomically defined single electron transistors as charge sensors, we demonstrate single electron charge sensing in few-donor quantum dots and characterize the tunnel coupling between few-donor quantum dots and precision-aligned single electron charge sensors.

Indexing (document details)
Advisor: Silver, Richard M, Appelbaum, Ian
Commitee: Einstein, Theodore L, Williams, James R, Reutt-Robey, Janice
School: University of Maryland, College Park
Department: Chemical Physics
School Location: United States -- Maryland
Source: DAI-B 81/4(E), Dissertation Abstracts International
Subjects: Quantum physics, Nanotechnology, Condensed matter physics
Keywords: atomic precision, Atomic-scale, donor, quantum devices, scanning tunneling microscope, silicon
Publication Number: 13902720
ISBN: 9781687912794
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