The high invasive Potential and increased resistance to radio- and chemotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor cells make it the most lethal of all primary brain tumors. It is therefore of great interest to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms facilitating the migration and DNA repair.
In the first part of this study, two algorithms for single cell tracking and wound healing assays were modified to increase effectiveness and speed of the automatic data analysis. The migratory capacity of the two GBM cell lines, DK MG and SNB19, were analyzed using these automatic algorithms. In addition, employing confocal microscopy and high resolution dSTORM imaging, the underlying F actin/FAK structure was resolved and studied. Together, these automatic algorithms enabled me to elucidate the effects of the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PI 103 alone and in combination with the Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 and/or irradiation on the migration, focal adhesions and F-actin cytoskeleton of DK-MG and SNB19 cells. Both cell lines differ markedly in their migratory capacity in vitro and display distinctive differences in their morphology. The less invasive DK-MG cells retained their polarized structure, while SNB19 cells demonstrate multipolar morphology with random migration. The PI3K/mTOR Inhibition using PI-103 suppressed migration of the PTEN wt and p53 wt DK-MG cells but not of the PTEN mut and p53 mut SNB19 cells. In contrast, Hsp90 inhibition using NVP-AUY922 exerted a strong inhibitory effect on the migration in both cell lines as well as massive morphological changes and reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton.
The second part of this study was designed to gain further insights in the DNA double strand break (DSB) repair of both GBM cell lines. The DNA DSB repair kinetics were analyzed using the novel software “FocAn-3D”. The software enables the 3D analysis of foci in entire nuclei using cLSM-imaging. This in turn results in increased accuracy of the foci counts, compared to approaches restricted to 2D. Using the new software approach, I was able to determine the whole γH2AX-foci induction and decay process and apply a well described mathematical model for the γH2AX-foci repair kinetics. Additionally, diffraction unlimited microscopy (dSTORM) was applied to resolve the nanometer scale of the foci forming repair proteins γH2AX and DNA-PK. Although conventional microscopy is able to reveal the repair foci as diffuse spots, the underlying protein distribution is well beyond the diffraction limit of ~200 nm. In this study, using the diffraction unlimited dSTORM microscopy with a lateral resolution of ~20 nm, it was possible to resolve the nanometer scale of both γH2AX and DNA-PK. γH2AX foci appeared not as diffuse spots, but rather as a distribution of distinct subunits (“nanofoci”). In contrast DNA-PK mostly showed a more diffuse distribution. The nanofoci diameter was about ~45 nm and it can be concluded that these clusters represent the elementary structural subunits of repair foci, the γH2AX-containing nucleosomes.
Using the newly developed or modified algorithms for the analysis of cell migration, I was able to show a cell line specific response of the PI3K/mTOR inhibition on the cell migration. This warrants further preclinical trials for its potential as an anti-migratory agent in the treatment of GBM. In addition, dSTORM emerged as a powerful tool for the analysis of the cytoskeletal structure, underlying the cells migration capacity and the effects of Hsp90 inhibition. Also, dSTORM was able to unravel the elementary nanostructure of the DSB repair foci. This means diffraction unlimited single-molecule localization nanoscopy methods will likely emerge as powerful tools for the analysis of targeted inhibition on the DSB repair mechanisms. In addition, the newly developed software “FocAn-3D” showed promising results in the analysis of Foci kinetics. Consequently, it should enable the future study of targeted inhibition and its effects on foci induction and decay processes of the DNA repair.
|Advisor:||Djuzenova , C. S., Sauer , M.|
|School:||Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)|
|Source:||DAI-C 81/3(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
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