This work focuses on the verbal voice in Kìzómbò (H.16k). It aims to understand and explain how this language allows the opposition between the active and passive voices; how reciprocal and reflexive are expressed in the language describing the participants. The study also explores derivatives and their realization in the language. In Kìzómbò the verbal voice is obtained by a verb-to-verb derivation process. The derived verb is formed by the derivatives known as extensions. In this work the extensions are divided into three groups: the first consists of those extensions that reduce the valency, namely: passive, reciprocal, stative, middle and potential. The second group is about those extensions that increase the valency: applicative, causative and impositive. The third aggregates those extensions that linguists designate as neutral: reversive, iterative, durative, intensive and repetitive(Mchombo 2004:110). The work is based on data collected from my field work using different data collection techniques such as questionnaire and interview. We have uesd also introspection, document review and library research. Different theoretical and analytical frameworks such as Givon´s (2001) functionalism, Creissels (2006a, b) lexicalism and realism and Lucien Tesnière (1959) valency grammar among others were used to analyze the data. The findings show that the passive voice uses two extensions: -am- and -u-. As valency decreaser, it behaves asymmetrically: the OD of the active voice has the privilege to be promoted to subject but the subject of active voice never becomes the object of passive. In this case there are two possibie outcomes for the agent, either it is suppressed or demoted. Kìzómbò uses also some other ways to express the passive meaning, e.g. by topicalizing the patient. The -an- extension of the reciprocal indicates that the verbal action is performed mutually by a group. Nowadays the reflexive prefix -ki- is used to express reciprocity in the language. The applicativeand impositive increase the valencyby adding one more argument. The causative -is- has the property of causativizing the transitive verbs by adding a third participant in the argument structure. Semantic and discourse aspects of the voice are related to the context of use.
|School:||Universitaet Bayreuth (Germany)|
|Source:||DAI-C 81/2(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
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