Smoking is a risk factor for alteration of both kidney and cardiovascular (CVD) health. The risk is higher among certain individuals due to their health, demographic, and the socioeconomic profile. This study found that smokers have overall higher risk of kidney and CVD function alteration compared to non-smokers. Smokers had higher levels of urine albumin, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid. Smokers also had higher cholesterol levels and systolic blood pressure while lower HDL levels compared to non-smokers. Combined smokers (users of cigarettes and other forms of tobacco) had higher levels of serum uric acid, urine creatinine, and serum triglycerides but lower HDL compared to cigarette smokers. Cigarette smokers had higher systolic blood pressure compared to combined smokers. Both cigarette and combined smokers have higher risk of kidney and CVD alteration, but this needs further analysis in the future. Lower sugar control increased risk for kidney and CVD function alterations among smokers. Smoking history also predicted several kidney and CVD function tests. Health disparities like smoking frequency, age, gender, race, household income, income to poverty ratio, armed forces service history, education status, and marital status also played a significant role in determining the kidney and CVD health. However, individual and multiple (full and reduced) regression analysis found variations in risk relationship between health predictors and kidney and cardiovascular biomarker subsequently.
|Advisor:||Farmer, Gail C.|
|Commitee:||Blanco, Lyzette, Korosteleva, Olga|
|School:||California State University, Long Beach|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||MAI 81/1(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Medicine, Public health, Epidemiology|
|Keywords:||Cardiovascular, Diabetes, Health disparities, Kidney function, Lipid profile, Smoking|
Copyright in each Dissertation and Thesis is retained by the author. All Rights Reserved
The supplemental file or files you are about to download were provided to ProQuest by the author as part of a
dissertation or thesis. The supplemental files are provided "AS IS" without warranty. ProQuest is not responsible for the
content, format or impact on the supplemental file(s) on our system. in some cases, the file type may be unknown or
may be a .exe file. We recommend caution as you open such files.
Copyright of the original materials contained in the supplemental file is retained by the author and your access to the
supplemental files is subject to the ProQuest Terms and Conditions of use.
Depending on the size of the file(s) you are downloading, the system may take some time to download them. Please be