Obesity is the next leading challenge facing today's world, with the annual allocation of healthcare resources for the disease and related comorbidities projected to exceed $150 billion in the United States. Obesity rates have grown around the world over the past 30 years and 60% of adults are currently either obese or overweight. Obesity is associated with several major diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), certain forms of cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Cardiac adipose tissue (CAT) is connective tissue consisting primarily of adipocytes (fat cells) around the heart. Studies have shown that there is a strong relationship between the thickness and volume of CAT and cardiovascular disease.
This study was approved by the institutional review board (IRB ID: 17-0817-1C) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were taken from volunteer female subjects. In this study, 3D models were created using cardiac MRI scans from 17 female subjects. Healthy, physically inactive subjects between the age of 18 and 40 years old with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 to 39.99 kg/m2 were selected. Among adults, a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2 corresponds to a healthy weight, BMI between 25.0 and 29.9 kg/m2 is overweight, and BMI of ≥ 30.0 kg/m2 is obese. The cardiac MRI scans return four-dimensional data, i.e. volumetric scans across time were acquired. Two particular time points in the cardiac cycle, namely end-diastole and end-systole were extracted from the scans using custom developed software. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were extracted from cine-MRI scans using custom developed software. The primary difference between taking Cine MRI and traditional MRI is that there is electrocardiogram (ECG) leads on the patient’s chest to measure the heart rate in Cine-MRI. End-diastolic volume can be defined in the ventricles at the end of filling. End-systolic volume, the lowest volume of blood in the cardiac cycle, can be defined at the beginning of filling. The 3D volumetric images were imported into 3D Slicer, an open source software for image processing and three-dimensional visualization, where manual thickness of CAT was calculated around the heart using rays derived from the normals of a prolate Spheroid surface manually centered and scaled within the left ventricle. Then, an equal-area map projection also known as Hammer projection was used to visualize the CAT map around the heart. The map then was divided into 9 anatomical regions for analysis. Based on the analysis, middle anterior and middle lateral regions on RV side had the most fat volume among the anatomical regions by 9.25 %, 9.08 %, respectively.
|Advisor:||Klingensmith, Jon, Lee, Felix H.|
|Commitee:||Cho, Sohyung, Klingensmith, Jon, Lee, Felix H.|
|School:||Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville|
|School Location:||United States -- Illinois|
|Source:||MAI 58/06M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Engineering, Industrial engineering, Medical imaging|
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