Throughout the history of Chinese Philosophy, phrases such as "harmony not sameness" (he’erbutong), "one thread," "inner sage, outer king," "one principle, many manifestations" and the "unity of heaven and human beings" illustrates the spirit of Integral (zhengti [special characters omitted) theory and practice. Confucian, Daoist, syncretist and Neo-Confucian traditions created models of ideal society (Datong) practiced through "inner sage, outer king" expressed as huangji, gong, dadao, tianxia-weigong, wangdao, renzheng and shenming.
As stated in Zhuangzi’s syncretist "All Under Heaven," Confucian, Mohist, Daoist, Legalist and "School of Names" traditions provided partial, one-sided, limited viewpoints of the "inner sage, outer king" "Daoshu" methodology. "All Under Heaven" hints at the potential for an Integral, self-cultivation and governing framework, but does not describe the methodology to apply the "art of Dao" in daily life. Utilizing McLeod’s "convergence model" reconciles the contradictions and weaknesses of each tradition’s over emphasis on "inner sage," at the expense of "outer king," or "outer king" devoid of "inner sage" to arrive at truth, Dao or ideal society. In addition, Dr. Yi Wu’s "Integral Life Philosophy" and "Integral Life Psychology" (zhengti shengming zhexue zhengti shengming xinlixue [special characters omitted]) describes the synthesis of philosophy, or "inner sage" and psychology, or "outer king" harmonized with Dao. Healthy members of harmonious communities build "inner sage, outer king" governing models of ideal society that are sustainable and peaceful.
Integral, balanced models directly solve the historical challenges of harmonious communities, tension between ethics and politics, lack of institutional structures and the search for fresh models of outward kingliness in a new form. "Inner sage, outer king" clarifies how and why to build models of ideal society, accentuating the necessary, valuable interdependence and complementarity between rulers and the people. The past ethical and political perfection of sage kings transforms into the contemporary challenge of how members of healthy families and communities govern themselves; striving for intercultural global harmony, preserving diversity and world peace.
|Commitee:||Goodman, Steven D., Yu, Titus|
|School:||California Institute of Integral Studies|
|Department:||Asian and Comparative Studies|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||DAI-A 80/11(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Asian Studies, Philosophy, Peace Studies|
|Keywords:||All under heaven for the people, Daxue, Great Plan, Inner sage, Outer king, Syncretism, Zhongyong|
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