Dissertation/Thesis Abstract

Rydberg-Mediated Atomic Ensemble Entanglement and Hyperfine Qubit Detection
by Kwon, Minho, Ph.D., The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2019, 255; 13862690
Abstract (Summary)

This thesis reports progress towards using hyperfine-encoded neutral atomic ensembles for quantum information applications. Ensemble qubits are alternative building blocks to process quantum information, while circumventing the challenges preparing a low-entropy single-atom qubit register. While ensemble approach inherits the single-atom quantum gate protocols, cooperative atom-light interaction makes it favorable platform to implement atom-photon interface, such as quantum memory.

We have demonstrated semi-deterministic preparation of W-state, which we use as an ensemble qubit. Observed 50–60% preparation fidelity shows discrepancy to expected > 80% fidelity including known imperfections. We suspect Ground-Rydberg and Rydberg-Rydberg molecular interactions within the ensemble modify the dynamics. State tomography and Ramsey experiment clearly identified that majority of constituents in an ensemble are indeed entangled. We report the first measurement of W-state coherence time as 2.6ms for 7.6 atoms, which is long enough to perform 2600 Rydberg-mediated quantum gate operations.

The first demonstration of Rydberg blockade between two ensembles happened in the same apparatus. We observe blockade fidelity of 0.89 (uncorrected) and near unity when post-selected on successful N = 1 Fock state preparation of Control ensemble. For weakly blockaded cases, Target ensemble remained as a perturber inhibiting Control ensemble from de-excitation. We discuss the efficacy of optical lattice insertion to suppress molecular interactions that might have been affecting the Rydberg dynamics.

High fidelity, parallel, low loss fluorescence detection of hyperfine ground state of rubidium atoms is presented. Enforced cycling transition scattering minimally alters the internal states. We achieve mean state detection fidelity of 97% (uncorrected) and 98.7% (SPAM error corrected), with atom loss rate < 2% and hyperfine-changing rate < 2%. This scalable technique is also compatible with ensemble qubits and error correcting schemes.

Technical developments on apparatus, lasers, supporting hardware and software are discussed. Automatic beam alignment system is implemented to correct long term drift of tightly focused addressing beams. Achieved pointing stability of 60 nm. Two home-made, high performing, cavity-enhanced frequency doubling systems were constructed to meet experimental demand. We observe 960/480 system output as high as 180 mW with 600 mW fundamental, and 1540/770 system output as high as 13.97 W from 19 W fundamental.

Indexing (document details)
Advisor: Saffman, Mark
Commitee: Kats, Mikhail, Walker, Thad, Yavuz, Deniz
School: The University of Wisconsin - Madison
Department: Physics
School Location: United States -- Wisconsin
Source: DAI-B 80/09(E), Dissertation Abstracts International
Subjects: Quantum physics, Atomic physics, Optics
Keywords: Entanglement, Hyperfine qubit, Quantum memory, Rydberg blockade, Rydberg interaction, Superradiance
Publication Number: 13862690
ISBN: 978-1-392-11960-0
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