A high-pressure CO2 foam was generated with silica nanoparticle dispersion and CO2 for fracturing applications. The effects of different ions and temperature on nanoparticle aggregation were studied. Nanoparticle dispersions were mixed with individual monovalent, divalent ions with varying concentrations, and two synthesized Permian connate water solutions. Samples of nanoparticle dispersions with the presence of NaCl were put into chambers with constant temperature for 14 hours. The peak size of aggregated nanoparticles in each sample was measured. It was found this silica nanoparticle dispersion had a high thermal stability up to 85 °C. The silica nanoparticle dispersion used in this study maintained a desired stability under an 18% reservoir salinity condition, yet it could be sensitive to high concentrations of Na2SO 4 solutions.
To investigate foam rheology and stability, high-pressure CO2 foams were generated in a beadpack with different CO2/NP ratios in NaCl solutions. The resulting foam was observed in a sapphire tube. The differential pressure across a capillary tube was recorded to calculate the apparent viscosity of foams. Nanoparticle-stabilized foams could remain stable for days and foam stability decreased with the increasing foam quality. Foam apparent viscosity was found to increase with foam quality and could be 3 times as high as that of the ambient phase. The high stability and fine texture of high-pressure CO2-in-water foams stabilized by silica nanoparticles have broadened the development of foam fracturing, offering a new opportunity for the effective development and stimulation of unconventional reservoirs.
|Commitee:||Feng, Yin, Guo, Boyun|
|School:||University of Louisiana at Lafayette|
|School Location:||United States -- Louisiana|
|Source:||MAI 58/05M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Nanotechnology, Petroleum engineering|
|Keywords:||CO2 foam, Foam fracturing, Foam rheology, Foam stability, High pressure, Nanoparticle|
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