A primary goal of counselor education programs is to prepare counselors-in-training (CITs) who are competent to provide counseling services to serve clients’ needs in particular practice areas. This competency is rooted in CITs’ counseling self-efficacy. Thus, the goal of this study was to examine factors associated with CITs’ counseling-self-efficacy, including the supervisory style they experienced during clinical supervision in practicum, their differentiation of self, and the moderation effect of differentiation of self on the relationship between counseling self-efficacy and supervisory style. Specifically, this study aims to explore the relationship among the variables of interest through the lens of the Social Cognitive Model of Counselor Training (SCMCT) in conjunction with the Integrative Developmental Model (IDM), Bowen’s Family System Theory (BFST), and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The participants in this study were practicum CITs who met the target population criteria. They completed a set of instruments consisting of a demographic questionnaire, the Counseling Self-Estimate Inventory (which measured counseling self-efficacy), the Supervisory Styles Index (which measured supervisory style), and the Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revised (which measured differentiation of self).
An analysis of the data revealed that the CITs’ reported being exposed to four clusters of multiple styles of supervision: (a) Affiliative, Directive, and a mixture of Non-Self-Disclosure—Self-Disclosure supervisory styles, (b) Authoritarian, Directive, and Non-Self-Disclosure supervisory styles, (c) Affiliative, Directive, and Self-Disclosure supervisory styles, and (d) a mixture of Authoritarian—Affiliative, Directive, and Self-Disclosure supervisory styles. Additionally, there was a significant moderate negative relationship between those reporting the Authoritarian—Affiliative dimension of supervisory style and their overall degree of DOS. This study clarifies and extends the theoretical framework used in the study. The theorized multiple styles of supervision from SCMCT and IDM was confirmed based on the findings in this study. Overall, the findings of the current study provide information to counselor educators and supervisors that can be used to better match supervisory styles to varying degrees of differentiation of self in CITs early clinical training with the aim to optimizing their degree of counseling self-efficacy. With the aim to increase the generalizability and extrapolating the findings, a replication is strongly recommended based on the promising framework and due to the low statistical power in the current study.
|Advisor:||Dugger, Suzanne M.|
|Commitee:||Balkin, Richard S., Dugger, John C., Reysen, Rebekah CH, Showalter, Marc K.|
|School:||The University of Mississippi|
|School Location:||United States -- Mississippi|
|Source:||DAI-B 80/07(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Counseling Psychology, Health education|
|Keywords:||Clinical mental health counseling, Counseling self-efficacy, Counselors-in-training, Differentiation of self, Practicum, Supervisory styles|
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