Although swine diseases and parasites cause significant losses to producers in Hawai‘i, limited information is available on changing disease patterns and related farm practices. The objectives of this study were to identify practices used on Hawai‘i swine farms and to determine if there is a relationship between those practices and the absence or presence of a disease. A management and biosecurity practices survey was administered to farmers (n = 27). Survey questions were analyzed by region, sow population, and disease presence. Most common practices included cooking food waste (94% of farmers feeding food waste), feral pig exclusion (74%), and administering an anthelmintic (63%). Challenges faced by farmers include biosecurity concerns of on-farm sales, limited access to veterinary specialists, and excluding vermin from the production area. In addition, serological samples (n = 414) from swine farms (n = 57 out of 200 farms) were tested and found positive for antibodies against Porcine Circovirus Type 2b (PCV ELISA; 98% positive), Senecavirus (SVA IFA; 58%), Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED IFA; 33%) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS ELISA; 16%). Fecal flotation detected coccidia oocysts (63%) on every island; Oesophagostomum dentatum (26%), Ascaris suum (18%), Strongyloides (11%), Metastrongylus spp. (8%), and Trichuris suis (8%) ova were on a subset of islands. Analysis indicates that disease prevalence is regionally distributed. Kaua‘i, which is protected by a quarantine order, has remained negative for PED, and Moloka‘i, which sees less interisland traffic, is negative for PRRS, PED, and SVA. Geographical patterns in disease distribution assist biosecurity and management practice recommendations, the design of vaccination protocols, and the judicious use of antibiotics.
|Advisor:||Zaleski, Halina M.|
|Commitee:||Jha, Rajesh, Odani, Jenee|
|School:||University of Hawai'i at Manoa|
|School Location:||United States -- Hawaii|
|Source:||MAI 58/04M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Agriculture, Animal sciences, Animal Diseases|
|Keywords:||Disease, Hawaii, Pig, Survey, Swine|
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