Dissertation/Thesis Abstract

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Synaptotagmin IV and MYT Factors Promote β-cell Functional Maturation and Maintenance
by Huang, Chen, Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017, 168; 13835077
Abstract (Summary)

This thesis aims to understand the maturation and functional maintenance of insulin-secreting β-cells in the pancreas. Here in the introduction, I will first present the overall anatomy and physiology of the pancreas, as pancreas construction and islet architecture are both critical contexts of β-cell research. I will then introduce the fundamental mechanism of β-cell function, i.e. glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Herein I will discuss physiological processes involved in the GSIS pipeline, focusing on the Ca2+ signaling-coupled vesicle exocytosis, which is most relevant to my research. After introducing β-cell function, I will present our current understanding of how mature β-cells featuring robust GSIS are formed. Next, I will discuss long-term maintenance of β-cell function and stability during postnatal stages. In particular, I will highlight the various types of cell stress that β-cells are likely to face and the intrinsic key factors required to handle them. To underscore the significance of postnatal β-cell stability, I will present the relationship between β-cell stress and the development of diabetes. In the last part of this introduction, I will focus on the most recent advances that scientists have made in generating β-cells as a restorative cell therapy for the treatment of diabetes, and the major knowledge gap that needs to be addressed in this field. Finally, I will discuss how this thesis research will likely broaden our perspectives of β-cell maturation and functional maintenance and further contribute to generating of long-lived functional β-cells to improve human health.

Indexing (document details)
Advisor: Gu, Guoqiang
Commitee: Bader, David, Chiang, Chin, Gannon, Maureen, Gu, Guoquiang, Weil, Tony
School: Vanderbilt University
Department: Cell and Developmental Biology
School Location: United States -- Tennessee
Source: DAI-B 80/06(E), Dissertation Abstracts International
Source Type: DISSERTATION
Subjects: Developmental biology
Keywords: Beta-cell, Development, Diabetets, Mouse, Myt factors, Synaptotagmin IV
Publication Number: 13835077
ISBN: 9780438821705
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