Signal integrity issues are known as problems related to the transmission of high-speed signals in printed circuit boards. Several publications exist offering rules of thumb and generic design guidelines to prevent signal integrity problems. However, few of these publications offer analytical reasoning behind the rules of thumb, and as a result signal integrity can be misunderstood leading to poor design practices.
This thesis aims to bridge the gap between theoretical high frequency behavior and practical design guidelines. Theoretical equations describing signal integrity issues were developed, followed by simulation and design of printed circuit boards exhibiting the issues. Measurements were taken to verify the theoretical and simulated behavior. Analysis was done in time and frequency domains to show how signal integrity issues gradually become prominent as signal frequency increases. Measurements taken include S-parameter, time domain reflectometry, pulse reflection, and impedance measurements.
Results showed that printed circuit board measurements agreed with theoretical and simulated expectation. The bandwidth of a digital pulse was verified as being 0.32 divided by the rise time. Time delay in FR4 was measured at 2 nsec/ft with an attenuation of -2.5 dB/ft. Measurements taken on the impedance discontinuity board showed discontinuities along a transmission line create intermediate reflections in the transmission, which can be ignored in low frequency applications. S-parameter measurements on the crosstalk board showed crosstalk increased with frequency and decreased with larger trace separation. In addition, H-field measurements taken above a trace and it’s return plane showed high frequency current will return through the path of least inductance.
|Commitee:||Ary, James, Chassiakos, Anastasios|
|School:||California State University, Long Beach|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||MAI 58/01M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Electrical engineering, Electromagnetics|
|Keywords:||Crosstalk, Hyperlynx, PCB, Reflections, Signal integrity|
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