Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging pollutants that are unregulated by the United States Environment Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Among the most prolific and harmful types of PPCPs are antibiotics, which are commonly used as a primary medical treatment for a variety of bacterial infections among humans and animals. wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are the last barrier between antibiotics in municipal wastewater and the environment; however, antibiotics are designed to be water soluble and resilient towards degradation to ensure biological activity in their target organisms.
Seven WWTPs from Southwest Illinois representing urban, suburban, and rural communities were selected for study for the purpose of measuring the seasonal changes and geographical relationships associated with disposal and the WWTP removal efficiency. Samples were prepared by solid phase extraction (SPE) and were analyzed with reversed phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (RP-UHPLC-MS/MS) with an electrospray ionization (ESI) and a triple-quadrupole mass analyzer in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM).
The antibiotics of wastewater samples were successfully detected and analyzed with the MRM method. Although the WWTPs remove the majority of antibiotics, most of the antibiotics reach the environment at the effluent of the WWTPs in an alarming concentration. The majority of the elimination percentages are large and positive as expected.
In addition, statistical analysis comparing relationships between the antibiotic elimination rate in relationship with disinfection method, HRT, and treatment process yielded no definitive conclusion, although a few insights were made.
|Advisor:||Tucker, Kevin R.|
|Commitee:||Greenfield, Ben, Lu, Yun, Voss, Eric J.|
|School:||Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville|
|School Location:||United States -- Illinois|
|Source:||MAI 58/01M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
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