Innovative instructional strategies, including online and blended learning, are meeting the needs of an increasingly technological environment. While effective in higher and secondary education, these approaches have not been adequately studied at the elementary level. This quantitative study was to understand whether differences existed in PARCC 2015 scores based on instructional modality, and the interaction between gender and instructional modality among fourth and fifth grade students. Using an ANOVA, the first main effect of modality was significant at the 95% confidence level, F(1, 166) = 7.05, p = .009, ηp2 = 0.04, indicating significant differences in 170 PARCC math scores by modality. This indicated a positive medium effect with the scores significantly higher in the traditional classroom modality (M= 743.29, SD= 25.11) than in the blended earning classroom modality ( M=731.74, SD= 33.20). The second main effect, gender, was not significant at the 95% confidence level, F(1, 166) = 1.47, p = .227, indicating no significant differences in 170 PARCC math scores by gender. Finally, the interaction effect between modality and gender was not significant at the 95% confidence level, F(1, 166) = 0.01, p = .928, indicating that a medium effect of modality type on 170 math scores did not differ by gender. Additionally, the researcher explored the effects of separating by grade level. Using an ANCOVA, the researcher compared PARCC math scores and separate grade levels, since both fourth graders and fifth graders were included in the sample. Results of the ANCOVA indicated that in a test of effects by grade level, F(1, 165) = .620, and p = .432, a medium effect of grade level on 170 math scores held no statistical significance.
|Commitee:||Kwagyan, John, Perot, Yvonne|
|School:||Grand Canyon University|
|Department:||College of Doctoral Studies|
|School Location:||United States -- Arizona|
|Source:||DAI-A 79/12(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Blended learning, Causal-comparative, Elementary, Modality, PARCC scores, Quantitative|
Copyright in each Dissertation and Thesis is retained by the author. All Rights Reserved
The supplemental file or files you are about to download were provided to ProQuest by the author as part of a
dissertation or thesis. The supplemental files are provided "AS IS" without warranty. ProQuest is not responsible for the
content, format or impact on the supplemental file(s) on our system. in some cases, the file type may be unknown or
may be a .exe file. We recommend caution as you open such files.
Copyright of the original materials contained in the supplemental file is retained by the author and your access to the
supplemental files is subject to the ProQuest Terms and Conditions of use.
Depending on the size of the file(s) you are downloading, the system may take some time to download them. Please be