Since January 8, 2009, U.S. and foreign-flagged vessels operating in the waters of the United States have been subject to Annex VI of MARPOL, which sets limits on sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides emissions from ship exhausts, and prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances. In a Memorandum of Understanding with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the United States Coast Guard is responsible for the enforcement of MARPOL regulations. Currently, the USCG conducts enforcement through onboard compliance inspections. A remote, mobile vessel emissions monitoring system capable of identifying and quantifying ship exhausts, and determining fuel sulfur content can make enforcement much more efficient. Multispectral sensing-based technology, which captures image data at specific frequencies across the electromagnetic spectrum, can be applied to enforce emission regulations. The thesis seeks to respond to the following research question: How can multispectral imaging technology be used to develop a vessel emissions monitoring system capable of remote and mobile operation? To develop the proposed vessel emissions monitoring system, the operational problem was first described. A literature review was then performed to determine the status of similar research conducted. The fundamentals behind multispectral technology were uncovered. Bands specific to those used for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides detection and quantification were then determined. Mobility and accessibility design considerations were investigated. A market survey was performed which concluded that imagers suitable for vessel emissions monitoring were not commercially available. A vessel emissions monitoring system therefore will require specialized design and consideration. It was ultimately found that while there is no system available that meets our needs, a multispectral sensing-based vessel emissions monitoring system as detailed in the study has the potential to provide a small, lightweight, and efficient enforcement system for use on various mobile detection platforms.
|Advisor:||Wakeman, Thomas, Bunin, Barry|
|School:||Stevens Institute of Technology|
|School Location:||United States -- New Jersey|
|Source:||MAI 58/01M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Ocean engineering, Mechanical engineering, Environmental engineering|
|Keywords:||Emissions, Engineering, Multispectral, Pollution, USCG, Vessel|
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