This thesis investigates the processes of place-making at Rock Art Ranch, northeastern Arizona from the Paleoindian period to early agricultural Basketmaker II period (11,500 BCE-600 CE) using the surface distributions of projectile points. Three major canyons cross-cut the ranch providing ample water resources that can be exploited year-round through natural springs, groundwater, and seasonal pools, attracting fauna and providing a diverse range of floral resources. Resources at Rock Art Ranch also include two cobble outcrops, providing raw material for stone tool manufacture. Additionally, thousands of petroglyphs scale the walls of Chevelon Canyon, ranging from Archaic to Pueblo styles. The sample of 162 preceramic projectile points are mostly found close to the canyons. Paleoindian, early Archaic, and middle Archaic projectile points are concentrated around Bell Cow Canyon. Projectile points made by semi-sedentary groups of the late Archaic and Basketmaker II periods occur more often around Chimney Canyon, demonstrating a shift in settlement. Projectile points dating from earlier periods are often associated with pithouse and pueblo sites, suggesting curation practices and active engagement with these materials. Continued use of the landscape seen in the discard of projectile points indicates that RAR was an important area for procurement of resources such as water, plant and animal foods, and lithic material. Evidence of discard and engagement with the artifacts and features from older occupations suggest that their cultural memories tied to this place were associated with the resources found there, but that memory of the place was reinforced by the archaeological record
|Advisor:||Adams, E. Charles|
|Commitee:||Kuhn, Steven L., Zedeño, María N.|
|School:||The University of Arizona|
|School Location:||United States -- Arizona|
|Source:||MAI 57/06M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Hunter-gatherers, Landscapes, Mobility, Place-making, Projectile points, U.S. Southwest|
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