Zooming is a type of user interaction offered by many programs and devices. It is used by millions of people, particularly with interactive web maps, but very few experiments have investigated why certain implementations are more effective than others. Research with direct manipulation devices (e.g., touchscreens) has found that the most natural user interaction is to swipe their finger in the direction they wish content to move. However, the most intuitive zooming direction is ambiguous for indirect manipulation devices (e.g., mouse, touchpad, and keyboard). Additionally, it is even less obvious which directional movement would result in a zooming gesture since most indirect manipulation devices only permit X and Y movements and zooming is a Z movement. For this reason, the current study investigated which Y axis directional movement is most compatible with zooming (a movement along the Z dimension) on indirect manipulation devices, and if this mapping is influenced by response method, depth cues, or instructions. Our results indicated that the R-E compatible zooming direction on indirect manipulation devices is what we define as the Forward in | Backward out mapping, which means the participant is moving their finger forward to zoom in and moving it backward to zoom out. This was reflected in higher accuracy for both touchpads and buttons and faster reaction times with touchpads. This suggests that the action of zooming on a 2D display is conceptualized as moving forward in space.
|Advisor:||Miles, James D.|
|Commitee:||Strybel, Thomas Z., Vu, Kim-Phuong L.|
|School:||California State University, Long Beach|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||MAI 57/05M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Response effect compatibility, Zooming|
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