Dissertation/Thesis Abstract

Cure Kinetics of Benzoxazine/Cycloaliphatic Epoxy Resin by Differential Scanning Calorimetry
by Gouni, Sreeja Reddy, M.S., California State University, Long Beach, 2018, 81; 10689461
Abstract (Summary)

Understanding the curing kinetics of a thermoset resin has a significant importance in developing and optimizing curing cycles in various industrial manufacturing processes. This can assist in improving the quality of final product and minimizing the manufacturing-associated costs. One approach towards developing such an understanding is to formulate kinetic models that can be used to optimize curing time and temperature to reach a full cure state or to determine time to apply pressure in an autoclave process. Various phenomenological reaction models have been used in the literature to successfully predict the kinetic behavior of a thermoset system.

The current research work was designed to investigate the cure kinetics of Bisphenol-A based Benzoxazine (BZ-a) and Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CER) system under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The cure characteristics of BZ-a/CER copolymer systems with 75/25 wt% and 50/50 wt% have been studied and compared to that of pure benzoxazine under nonisothermal conditions. The DSC thermograms exhibited by these BZ-a/CER copolymer systems showed a single exothermic peak, indicating that the reactions between benzoxazine-benzoxazine monomers and benzoxazine-cycloaliphatic epoxy resin were interactive and occurred simultaneously. The Kissinger method and isoconversional methods including Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Freidman were employed to obtain the activation energy values and determine the nature of the reaction. The cure behavior and the kinetic parameters were determined by adopting a single step autocatalytic model based on Kamal and Sourour phenomenological reaction model. The model was found to suitably describe the cure kinetics of copolymer system prior to the diffusion-control reaction.

Analyzing and understanding the thermoset resin system under isothermal conditions is also important since it is the most common practice in the industry. The BZ-a/CER copolymer system with 75/25 wt% ratio which exhibited high glass transition temperature compared to polybenzoxazine was investigated under isothermal conditions. The copolymer system exhibited the maximum reaction rate at an intermediate degree of cure (20 to 40%), indicating that the reaction was autocatalytic. Similar to the nonisothermal cure kinetics, Kamal and Sourour phenomenological reaction model was adopted to determine the kinetic behavior of the system. The theoretical values based on the developed model showed a deviation from the obtained experimental values, which indicated the change in kinetics from a reaction-controlled mechanism to a diffusion-controlled mechanism with increasing reaction conversion. To substantiate the hypothesis, Fournier et al’s diffusion factor was introduced into the model, resulting in an agreement between the theoretical and experimental values.

The changes in cross-linking density and the glass transition temperature (Tg) with increasing epoxy concentration were investigated under Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA). The BZ-a/CER copolymer system with the epoxy content of less than 40 wt% exhibited the greatest Tg and cross-linking density compared to benzoxazine homopolymer and other ratios.

Indexing (document details)
Advisor: Barjasteh, Ehsan
Commitee: Jang, Larry, Mendez, Sergio
School: California State University, Long Beach
Department: Chemical Engineering
School Location: United States -- California
Source: MAI 57/04M(E), Masters Abstracts International
Subjects: Chemical engineering, Materials science
Keywords: Benzoxazine, Cure, DSC, Differential scanning calorimetry, Epoxy, Kinetics
Publication Number: 10689461
ISBN: 9780355669718
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