Understanding the curing kinetics of a thermoset resin has a significant importance in developing and optimizing curing cycles in various industrial manufacturing processes. This can assist in improving the quality of final product and minimizing the manufacturing-associated costs. One approach towards developing such an understanding is to formulate kinetic models that can be used to optimize curing time and temperature to reach a full cure state or to determine time to apply pressure in an autoclave process. Various phenomenological reaction models have been used in the literature to successfully predict the kinetic behavior of a thermoset system.
The current research work was designed to investigate the cure kinetics of Bisphenol-A based Benzoxazine (BZ-a) and Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CER) system under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The cure characteristics of BZ-a/CER copolymer systems with 75/25 wt% and 50/50 wt% have been studied and compared to that of pure benzoxazine under nonisothermal conditions. The DSC thermograms exhibited by these BZ-a/CER copolymer systems showed a single exothermic peak, indicating that the reactions between benzoxazine-benzoxazine monomers and benzoxazine-cycloaliphatic epoxy resin were interactive and occurred simultaneously. The Kissinger method and isoconversional methods including Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Freidman were employed to obtain the activation energy values and determine the nature of the reaction. The cure behavior and the kinetic parameters were determined by adopting a single step autocatalytic model based on Kamal and Sourour phenomenological reaction model. The model was found to suitably describe the cure kinetics of copolymer system prior to the diffusion-control reaction.
Analyzing and understanding the thermoset resin system under isothermal conditions is also important since it is the most common practice in the industry. The BZ-a/CER copolymer system with 75/25 wt% ratio which exhibited high glass transition temperature compared to polybenzoxazine was investigated under isothermal conditions. The copolymer system exhibited the maximum reaction rate at an intermediate degree of cure (20 to 40%), indicating that the reaction was autocatalytic. Similar to the nonisothermal cure kinetics, Kamal and Sourour phenomenological reaction model was adopted to determine the kinetic behavior of the system. The theoretical values based on the developed model showed a deviation from the obtained experimental values, which indicated the change in kinetics from a reaction-controlled mechanism to a diffusion-controlled mechanism with increasing reaction conversion. To substantiate the hypothesis, Fournier et al’s diffusion factor was introduced into the model, resulting in an agreement between the theoretical and experimental values.
The changes in cross-linking density and the glass transition temperature (Tg) with increasing epoxy concentration were investigated under Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA). The BZ-a/CER copolymer system with the epoxy content of less than 40 wt% exhibited the greatest Tg and cross-linking density compared to benzoxazine homopolymer and other ratios.
|Commitee:||Jang, Larry, Mendez, Sergio|
|School:||California State University, Long Beach|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||MAI 57/04M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Chemical engineering, Materials science|
|Keywords:||Benzoxazine, Cure, DSC, Differential scanning calorimetry, Epoxy, Kinetics|
Copyright in each Dissertation and Thesis is retained by the author. All Rights Reserved
The supplemental file or files you are about to download were provided to ProQuest by the author as part of a
dissertation or thesis. The supplemental files are provided "AS IS" without warranty. ProQuest is not responsible for the
content, format or impact on the supplemental file(s) on our system. in some cases, the file type may be unknown or
may be a .exe file. We recommend caution as you open such files.
Copyright of the original materials contained in the supplemental file is retained by the author and your access to the
supplemental files is subject to the ProQuest Terms and Conditions of use.
Depending on the size of the file(s) you are downloading, the system may take some time to download them. Please be