Low-order numerical methods are widespread in academic solvers and ubiquitous in industrial solvers due to their robustness and usability. High-order methods are less robust and more complicated to implement; however, they exhibit low numerical dissipation and have the potential to improve the accuracy of flow simulations at a lower computational cost when compared to low-order methods. This motivates our development of a high-order compact method using Huynh's flux reconstruction scheme for solving unsteady incompressible flow on unstructured grids. We use Chorin's classic artificial compressibility formulation with dual time stepping to solve unsteady flow problems. In 2D, an implicit non-linear lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel scheme with backward Euler discretization is used to efficiently march the solution in pseudo time, while a second-order backward Euler discretization is used to march in physical time. We verify and validate implementation of the high-order method coupled with our implicit time stepping scheme using both steady and unsteady incompressible flow problems. The current implicit time stepping scheme is proven effective in satisfying the divergence-free constraint on the velocity field in the artificial compressibility formulation. The high-order solver is extended to 3D and parallelized using MPI. Due to its simplicity, time marching for 3D problems is done explicitly. The feasibility of using the current implicit time stepping scheme for large scale three-dimensional problems with high-order polynomial basis still remains to be seen.
We directly use the aforementioned numerical solver to simulate pulsatile flow of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid through a rigid 180-degree curved artery model. One of the most physiologically relevant forces within the cardiovascular system is the wall shear stress. This force is important because atherosclerotic regions are strongly correlated with curvature and branching in the human vasculature, where the shear stress is both oscillatory and multidirectional. Also, the combined effect of curvature and pulsatility in cardiovascular flows produces unsteady vortices. The aim of this research as it relates to cardiovascular fluid dynamics is to predict the spatial and temporal evolution of vortical structures generated by secondary flows, as well as to assess the correlation between multiple vortex pairs and wall shear stress. We use a physiologically (pulsatile) relevant flow rate and generate results using both fully developed and uniform entrance conditions, the latter being motivated by the fact that flow upstream of a curved artery may not have sufficient straight entrance length to become fully developed. Under the two pulsatile inflow conditions, we characterize the morphology and evolution of various vortex pairs and their subsequent effect on relevant haemodynamic wall shear stress metrics.
|Advisor:||Plesniak, Michael W., Liang, Chunlei|
|Commitee:||Balaras, Elias, Bardet, Philippe M., Huynh, H.T.|
|School:||The George Washington University|
|Department:||Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering|
|School Location:||United States -- District of Columbia|
|Source:||DAI-B 79/05(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Fluid mechanics, Computational physics, Aerospace engineering|
|Keywords:||Artificial compressibility, Curved artery, Flux reconstruction, Navier-stokes equations, Vortex dynamics, Wall shear stress|
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