Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and is a leading cause of long-term disability. More than 795,000 people have a stroke annually. Ischemic strokes account for 87% of all strokes, and hemorrhagic strokes account for 13% of all strokes. Although family history is an indicator for both types of stroke, ischemic strokes are more closely related to environmental risk factors, such as diet, exercise and smoking. Hemorrhagic strokes also aggregate within families but often occur at younger ages indicating a possible genetic link. The purpose of this study was to identify similarities and differences of the biological risk factors associated with hemorrhagic stroke, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and/or high cholesterol, and environmental risk factors, such as exercise, alcohol consumption, smoking, and perceived stress within and between families with a history of hemorrhagic stroke.
Methods: 14 individuals (8 with hemorrhagic stroke, 6 without hemorrhagic stroke) participated from 4 families with a family history of hemorrhagic stroke were recruited from stroke support groups in the southeast, social media and Casa Colina Hospital and Medical Center in Pomona, California. Participants completed medical and family history questionnaires, as well as, the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLPII) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS).
Results: Nonparametric statistical analysis and visual representation were utilized to compare biological risk factors associated with hemorrhagic stroke within and between families and to measure the strength and direction of association that exists between groups. Hypertension was the most salient biological risk factor among all study participants (87%), followed by high cholesterol (42.9%) and diabetes mellitus (14.3%). General stress and alcohol consumption was reported in all families (50% and 57% of participants, respectively). Mann-Whitney U Test indicated that PSS scores were significantly higher for participants with hemorrhagic stroke ( x¯ = 24.33) than for participants without hemorrhagic stroke (x¯ = 15.67), U = 4.0, p = .028).
Conclusion: There is not one clear biological or environmental factor identified as the cause of familial hemorrhagic stroke; however, hypertension seems aggregate within families with a history of hemorrhagic stroke suggesting that it may be a major risk factor. In addition, perceived stress was significantly higher in participants with hemorrhagic stroke compared to those without hemorrhagic stroke suggesting that it is also a risk factor for familial hemorrhagic stroke.
|Commitee:||Henrich, Vincent, Hooper, Celia, Phillips, Susan, Rosario, Emily|
|School:||The University of North Carolina at Greensboro|
|Department:||Health and Human Sciences: Communication Sciences and Disorders|
|School Location:||United States -- North Carolina|
|Source:||DAI-B 79/04(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Speech therapy, Public health|
|Keywords:||Familial, Hemorrhagic stroke, High blood pressure, Speech language pathology|
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