Dissertation/Thesis Abstract

Modeling Targeted Alpha Particle Therapy of Cancer: Image-Based Dosimetric Models of Bone and Kidney
by Geyer, Amy Marie, Ph.D., University of Florida, 2015, 429; 10679119
Abstract (Summary)

Current radiation treatment modalities, including external beam therapy and betaemitting radioimmunotherapies, have been successfully applied to many forms of cancer treatment. In cases where the cancer has metastasized to regions beyond its origin, these treatments are seldom effective. Alpha particle radioimmunotherapy is a promising modality for metastasized cancers (and other cancers requiring targeted therapy) given their high linear energy transfer (LET) and ability to provide potent, localized energy deposition due to their short range and dense ionization tracks.

Radiation dosimetry is an essential aspect of radiation therapies, allowing the effectiveness of treatments to be compared. Furthermore, accurate dosimetry calculations can be used to determine the potential threshold doses and increased risk associated with deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, that may occur as a result of radiation exposure to non-targeted tissues. Due to the short range of alpha particles typically used in radioimmunotherapy (on the order of 50-80 ìm), dosimetry must be assessed at the sub-organ, microscopic level. As the case with all radioimmunotherapy, bone marrow is often the dose-limiting organ due to its inherent heightened radiosensitivity. In addition to the risk of radiation toxicity to the bone marrow damage, kidney damage is of particular concern in radioimmunotherapy due to the physiology of the kidneys, acting as the major filtration and excretory organ of the body. To assess absorbed doses to these organs of interest, realistic computational microscopic and macroscopic models of organ geometries can be coupled with Monte Carlo methods to perform radiation transport for radionuclides of interest in alphaparticle radioimmunotherapy. The present study has made significant advances through the successful development of depth-dependent models of trabecular spongiosa of the skeleton as well as detailed, image-based models of both the macro- and microscopic anatomy of the human kidneys. These models have been used to generate a comprehensive library of radionuclide S values – absorbed doses to the target tissue per nuclear transformation in the source tissue - for commonly used radionuclides in radioimmunotherapy.

Indexing (document details)
Advisor: Bolch, Wesley
Commitee: Aris, John Aris, Gunduz, Aysegul, Ormerod, Brandi
School: University of Florida
Department: Biomedical Engineering
School Location: United States -- Florida
Source: DAI-B 79/04(E), Dissertation Abstracts International
Source Type: DISSERTATION
Subjects: Biomedical engineering
Keywords: Monte Carlo, computational, dosimetry, radionuclide therapy
Publication Number: 10679119
ISBN: 9780355401394
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