Modern hydraulic fracturing designs assume that drilled formations are both isotropic and homogeneous, and fractures are linear and symmetrical. However, unconventional resources are often obtained from formations that are both anisotropic and heterogeneous, resulting in complex fracture behavior. The objective of this study is to evaluate fracture behavior based on the influence of anisotropy and water saturation.
Isotropic and homogeneous Austin Chalk, Berea Sister Gray Sandstone, and Silurian Dolomite, laminated anisotropic and heterogeneous Parker Sandstone, Nugget Sandstone, and Winterset Limestone Carbonate, and fully anisotropic and heterogeneous Edwards Brown Carbonate cores were ordered for testing. Brazilian discs were cut according the ISRM and ASTM standards, and prepared as dry, brine saturated, and fresh water saturated samples. All samples were fractured by the Brazilian test, and laminated anisotropic samples were tested at various loading angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 90°). Tensile strengths were calculated using the peak load of the primary fracture of each sample, and the fractures were observed for geometrical trends. Additionally, the strain development of each fracture was analyzed through the application of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) software.
The results determined that anisotropy and saturation can decrease the tensile strength of a formation. The fracture geometries were influenced by planes of anisotropic lamination, and fully anisotropic rocks produced winding, erratic fractures. DIC allowed for closer 101 examination of fracture development, and identified that saturation can cause failure along lamination planes subjected to less than the maximum, load induced stress. This research can be utilized to improve the hydraulic fracturing design models to optimize formation fractures, and increase revenue for the oil and gas industry.
|Commitee:||Liu, Ning, Seibi, Abdennour|
|School:||University of Louisiana at Lafayette|
|School Location:||United States -- Louisiana|
|Source:||MAI 57/01M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Engineering, Petroleum engineering|
|Keywords:||Anisotropy, Brazilian test, Complex fracture, Digital image correlation, Tensile strength, Transverse isotropy|
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