Boilers have many commercial purposes including producing steam heat and hot water for municipal buildings, office buildings and multi-residential buildings. Boilers operate by using fuel (most often natural gas) to heat water under pressure. Boilers are dangerous, and have the potential for both steam explosions and fire. Boiler regulations specify the safeguards needed to prevent either a fire or an explosion from occurring. Additional regulations over boilers include fuel efficiency requirements.
Boilers are online (often called 'automatic boilers') to enable remote monitoring. Boilers can be online as a part of Building Automation systems (BAS), or Building Management Systems (BMS). This increases convenience, and may increase efficiency, but it also adds risk. The original safeguard for the boiler system was in its physical security of having a person physically with the boiler, and by having the boiler in a physically secure location. A remotely monitored system is subject to all the risks of anything on the internet, including viruses, worms and hackers.
This paper introduces boiler safety requirements for safe operation, as well as the legislation enacted to ensure safe boiler operation. It also discusses the potential vulnerabilities and risks inherent to boiler operation and boiler equipment, particularly to online boiler equipment. Finally, it discusses recommendations to improve legislation, and ways to proactively safeguard an online boiler.
|Advisor:||Riddell, Christopher M., Craig, Michael T.|
|School Location:||United States -- New York|
|Source:||MAI 57/01M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Information Technology, Computer science|
|Keywords:||Cyber-attack, Cyber-defense, Cybersecurity, Human machine interface, Industrial control system, Professor riddell|
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