This thesis deals with the application of the sulfonyl stabilized methandiide 20-Li2 as a ligand in transition metal complexes. In this context, 20-Li2 reacted with several transition metal halides to the corresponding carbene complexes via salt metathesis reaction. The obtained systems exhibited flexible bonding situations concerning the nature of the M–C bond and revealed different coordination modes of the sulfonyl moiety. This flexibility significantly influenced the stability and the reactivity of these complexes. Depending on the nature of the metals and co-ligands, carbene complexes with a more ylidic interaction (A) and such with a real M=C double bond (B) could be obtained. In this context, a variety of novel complexes with both early (zirconium) and late (palladium, ruthenium, iridium) transition metals were establishe.The synthesized compounds revealed different structural and electronic properties, enabling their classification into the categories A and B. For example, the reaction of methandiide 20-Li2 with zirconocene dichloride led to the selective formation of zirconocene complex 50. NMR spectroscopy (e.g. high-field shift of the 13C NMR signal of the carbene carbon atom) and the molecular structure (e.g. pyramidalisation of the “carbene“ carbon atom) led to the conclusion, that 50 could not be described as a carbene complex with a Zr=C double bond. This could also be confirmed by theoretical studies. Thus, the “Natural Bond Orbital“ analysis (NBO analysis) showed a significant negatively charged carbon atom (qc = –1.42), in line with the nucleophilicity of 50 and a positive charge at the zirconium atom (qZr = 1.35). Hence, the nature of the Zr–C bond in 50 is best described by an ylidic interaction. Similar results were obtained when methandiide 20-Li2 was treated with [(PPh3)2PdCl2] or [(PPh3)3RuCl2] to form the complexes 51a and 52-Int. Comparable to 50, NBO analysis of 51a and 52-Int revealed only a sigma bond between the metal and the carbon atom, but no pi interaction. According to the electronic structure of 51a and 52-Int, both complexes turned out to be instable and highly reactive while compound 51a decomposed in solution under the formation of several decomposition products and the ruthenium carbene intermediate 52-Int underwent an intramolecular CH-activation of the phenyl group of the sulfonyl moiety to the cyclometalated complex 52. Product 52 could be isolated in a yield of 62% and fully characterized.
In the case of the palladium and ruthenium complexes, the observed weak π interaction between metal and carbon atom can be referred to the electron rich metal centers. Here, the electron density of the late transition metals was additionally increased by strong σ donor and poor π acceptor abilities of the phosphine ligands. Hence, substitution of the phosphines in the ruthenium dichloride precursor by an arene ligand (p-cymene) resulted in a change of the electronics of the metal fragment, allowing the selective access to ruthenium carbene complex 53. Compound 53 could be isolated in 86% yield as a purple solid and fully characterized. X-ray diffraction analysis, NMR spectroscopy and theoretical studies confirmed the double bond character of the M–C interaction in 53. The molecular structure of 53 revealed a short Ru–C bond and a planar coordination environment of the central carbon atom [sum of angles: 358.9(1) Å]. In comparison with the bond lengths of the PCS backbone in methandiide 20-Li2, elongated P–C and C–S bonds were found in 53, indicating weaker electrostatic interactions within the ligand framework and thus an efficient electron transfer from the methandiide to the metal fragment. Additionally, the NBO analysis revealed both σ and π contribution of the M=C bond with only a slight polarization to the carbon atom. Similar observations (short Ir–C distance, planar coordination environment of the carbon atom, reduced electrostatic interactions within the ligand framework, NBO analysis) were made for iridium carbene complex 55. Nevertheless, the carbene carbon atom in 55 was found to exhibit a higher negative charge, indicating a more pronounced ylidic character of the M–C bond compared to ruthenium complex 53.
According to the electronic nature of the M–C bond, different reactivity patterns could be observed for the carbene complexes. Whereas the reaction of zirconocene complex 50 with aldehydes, ketones or disulfides was either unsuccessful or led to decomposition under formation of the protonated ligand 20, an intramolecular C–H activation to 52 could be observed in the case of ruthenium carbene complex 52-Int. On the contrary, ruthenium carbene complex 53 could be applied in a variety of E–H bond activation reactions at room temperature. The reactions proved the non-innocent behaviour of the methandiide ligand which serves as nucleophilic center. Hence, the O–H and N–H bonds in a series of alcohols and amines (products 56, 58 and 59), the P–H bond in secondary phosphine oxides and the hydridic Si–H and B–H bonds in silanes and boranes could be splitted using complex 53. X-ray diffraction analyses of the activation products revealed a 1,2-addition of the substrates across the Ru–C double bond to the corresponding cis-addition products. Thereby, the change from a metal carbon double to a metal carbon single bond was acoompanied by an elongation of the Ru–C bond from 1.965(2) Å in 53 to about 2.2 Å. Additionally, a pyramidalization of the carbon atom could be detected, instead of a planar coordination environment as in carbene complex 53. All activation reactions performed with substrates containing a protic (O–H, N–H bonds) or a slightly protic/hydridic (P–H bonds) hydrogen occurred via protonation of the nucleophilic carbene carbon atom. Interestingly, some O–H and N–H activation reactions resulted in an equilibrium between the carbene and the activation complex. It is important to note, that such an equilibrium has so far not been observed for methandiide based carbene complexes and thus underlines the extraordinary stability of ruthenium complex 53. The reversibility could be confirmed by VT NMR experiments, such as of the reaction of 53 with p methoxyphenol. These studies showed that the equilibrium can almost completely be shifted towards the addition product at –80 °C due to entropical reasons. On the contrary, warming the sample to room temperature led to the re-formation of carbene complex 53. A reversible reaction process could also be observed for the activation of N–H bonds. For example, in the case of the activation of ammonia the amido complex 60 could not be isolated due to a strong temperature dependency of the equilibrium. Temperatures as low as –90 °C were necessary to move the equilibrium to the side of the activation product. Future studies will focus on the isolation of 60 in solid state in order to confirm the existence of 60. Furthermore, a transfer of the activated ammonia to unsaturated substrates will be tested.
Surprisingly, reactions of a series of aliphatic and aromatic silanes with 53 led to an analogous bond activation and to the selective formation of the silyl complexes 66a 66f. According to the polarity of the Si–H bond in silanes, a reverse reactivity with formation of the corresponding hydrido complexes was expected, but could not be observed at all. The reaction mechanism could be elucidated by DFT studies and was found to proceed via a stepwise process. Thereby, the flexible M–C bond in 53 enabled an oxidative addition of the Si–H bond to the ruthenium center, followed by a hydride transfer to the methanide carbon atom. Besides the isolation and characterization of the silyl complexes 66a-66f, those complexes were also tested in the catalytic hydrosilylation of norbornene. Whereas no reaction was observed at room temperature, hydrosilylation product 68 was formed at 80 °C. Nevertheless, the formation of 68 was only accomplished in small amounts as confirmed by GC-MS analysis. Instead, the ROMP product turned out to be the main product under the reaction conditions. Future studies should concentrate on the optimisation of the reaction conditions in order to improve the selectivity of the hydrosilylation reaction.
In contrast to the so far discussed E–H bond activation reactions, carbene complex 53 showed diverse reactivities towards boranes and different borane Lewis base adducts. The reaction of 53 with catechol borane gave hydrido complex 73, which could be characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. In contrast to the activation of the Si–H bond, the B–H bond activation complex 73 reflects the expected reactivity due to the polarity of the B–H and the M=C bond. Surprisingly, the activation of the B–H bond in pinacol borane did not lead to a hydrido complex similar to 73. In this case, NMR studies of the reaction process confirmed the formation of the B–H addition product under protonation of the PCS backbone, followed by a rapid conversion to a novel, so far unidentified complex. The formation of a completely different product was again observed within the reaction of 53 with BH3∙SMe2. Here, complex 76 could be isolated, which is formed by activation of the B–H bond, accompanied by an insertion of one borane into the thiophosphoryl moiety. The molecular structure of 76 revealed a five-membered P–B–S–Ru–C ring as the central structural motif.
Besides its activation potential concerning polar E–H bonds, carbene complex 53 was also applied in the activation of non polar bonds like the one in dihydrogen giving way to hydrido complex 77. The molecular structure of 77 could be confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis and revealed a cis-addition of H2 across the RuC double bond. Additionally, the signal for the hydridic hydrogen atom could be detected in the 1H NMR spectrum at H = –6.62 ppm. Interestingly, compound 77 could also be obtained by dehydrogenation of iso propanol or formic acid (HCOOH) via formation of acetone or CO2.
Based on the observed dehydrogenation of iPrOH, an application of carbene complex 53 as catalyst in catalytic transfer hydrogenations of ketones to alcohols was assumed. Despite the fact that the activation of H2 and the dehydrogenation of iPrOH did not show any reversibility, a catalytic cycle including both carbene complex 53 and hydrido complex 77 with iPrOH as hydrogen source should be realizable (Fig. 4.5., left). First attempts aiming at the catalytic reduction of acetophenone to 1 phenylethanol with 53 and KOtBu as base delivered poor yields of the alcohol in comparison with literature-known transition metal catalysts. For example, 0.50 mol-% 53 and 19 mol-% KOtBu gave 1 phenylethanol in only 55% yield after 24 h at 75 °C. Additionally, the conversions turned out to depend on the amount of base indicating a competing base induced reduction. Optimization of the reaction conditions by adding triphenylphosphine as additive led to almost quantitative conversions (94%) to 1 phenylethanol within 12 h at 75 °C using 0.50 mol-% 53, 6.20 mol-% KOtBu and 6.20 mol % PPh3. Yields of about 90% could still be achieved when decreasing the KOtBu and PPh3 loadings to 1.60 and 1.10 mol. Overall, ruthenium complex 53 is the first methandiide based carbene complex applied in catalytic transfer hydrogenations. Thereby, the catalytic activity of 53/PPh3 was not only limited to the reduction of acetophenone, but could also be transferred to further aromatic and aliphatic ketones.
The reaction process of the catalytic transfer hydrogenation was studied by NMR spectroscopy to determine the catalytic active species formed during the reaction process. These studies showed that at first the hydrido complex 77 is formed at 75 °C, followed by its reaction with PPh3 to the cyclometalated phosphine complex 52. Studies on the catalytic ability of 52 itself in the transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone to 1 phenylethanol revealed even better performances. Overall, better yields could be obtained when using 52 as catalyst. A yield of 95% could already be obtained after 3 h using 0.50 mol-% 52 and 1.60 mol-% KOtBu. Additionally, a test reaction using only 52 without any additional base led to a remarkable yield of about 40%. Comparable to the catalytic system 53/PPh3, complex 52 could also be applied in the catalytic reduction of further ketones giving yields of about 72% to 96%.
The observed reactivity of ruthenium carbene complex 53 and the non-innocent behavior of the methandiide ligand could also be established for iridium carbene complex 55. Here, similar N–H, P–H and Si–H addition products could be synthesized selectively and isolated in good yields of 60-90%.
Analogous to ruthenium complex 53, the activation of substrates with different E–H bonds led to protonation of the PCS bridge in 55. This is in line with the polarization distribution of the Irδ+–Cδ- bond in 55. The activation products again revealed a cis-addition of the E–H unit on the Ir=C fragment. However, one exception was observed in the case of the reaction of 55 with p-nitro-aniline, which led to the formation of the N H activation product 61b with a trans-arrangement of the amido ligand relative to the PCHS hydrogen atom. Here, the trans-arrangement is favoured due to the formation of a hydrogen bond between the amido and the sulfonyl units. Additionally, complex 61b showed a reversible reaction process at room temperature, leading to the re-formation of carbene complex 55 and of p-nitroaniline. Due to the reversibility of 61b in solution, further studies should concentrate on the potential of 61b as catalyst for hydroamination reactions.
Despite the hydridic character of the hydrogen atom in silanes, Si–H bond activation reactions of carbene complex 55 exclusively led to the formation of the silyl complexes 71a-71c under protonation of the nucleophilic carbene carbon atom in 55. Interestingly, 71a was found to be instable and further reacted to the cyclometalated complex 72 already at room temperature. Additionally, the activation of H2 and the dehydrogenation of iPrOH also resulted in the formation of 72. Here, the reaction process was studied by NMR spectroscopy. These experiments revealed that the cyclometalation occurs from hydrido complex 79, which is formed in situ during the reaction process. Furthermore, deuteration experiments with iPrOH d8 evidenced that the protonation of the PCS fragment results from the reaction of 55 with iPrOH and is not formed via an intramolecular cyclometalation via C–H activation of the sulfonyl phenyl group. Due to the rapid transformation of hydrido complex 79 to the cyclometalated species 72, the isolation of 79 was not possible.
The nucleophilicity of the carbene carbon atom and the special M–C interaction in ruthenium carbene complex 53 also allowed for [2+2] cycloaddition reactions with iso- and thioisocyanates. In this context, reaction of 53 with tert-butyl and phenyl isocyanate afforded the cycloaddition products 80a and 80b. The complexes 80a/b could be isolated in good yields (about 80%) as well as fully characterized. X-ray diffraction analysis of 80a confirmed the formation of a four-membered C–Ru–N–C ring as the central structural motif of 80a. These findings were in line with literature-known cycloaddition reactions of methandiide based carbene complexes with isocyanates. On the contrary, reaction of 53 with tert-butyl and phenyl thioisocyanate afforded the complexes 81a/b. Here, addition of the heteroallene to the ruthenium carbon double bond occurred via the C=S fragment of the thioisocyanate. Hence, the [2+2] cycloaddition resulted in the formation of a four-membered C–Ru–S–C ring as central structural motif. Overall, the observed selectivity of the [2+2] cycloaddition reactions to 80a/b and 81a/b can be explained by the HSAB concept. Accordingly, the softer atom of the heteroallene is connected to the soft ruthenium center. Despite the fact that the reactivity of methandiide based carbene complexes with different heteroallenes has already been reported in literature, cycloaddition reactions with thioisocyanates affording complexes such as 81a/b has so far been unknown.
Besides its application as ligand for the synthesis of novel transition metal complexes, methandiide 20-Li2 was found to be suitable for the synthesis of Li/Cl carbenoid 83. On the one hand, compound 83 could be obtained by oxidation of 20-Li2 with hexachloroethane (C2Cl6) and on the other hand by metalation of the chloro derivative 82. Carbenoid 83 could be isolated as a colorless, crystalline solid in good yields (67 82%) and represents a rare example of a room temperature stable Li/Cl carbenoid. Due to the stability of 83 both in solid state and in solution at room temperature, the carbenoid could be characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Moreover, the molecular structure of 83 could be determined by X-ray diffraction analysis, revealing no direct contact between the carbenoid carbon and the lithium atom. Instead, the sulfonyl group of the ligand system coordinates to the lithium atom and thus inhibits the elimination of lithium chloride. This and the electronic stabilisation by the α substituents result in the observed stability of 83. Furthermore, the molecular structure did not reveal an elongation of the C–Cl bond as often described for unstabilised carbenoids. These findings and the observed deshielding of the carbenoid carbon atom in the 13C NMR spectrum relative to the chlorinated precursor 82 suggested a reduced carbenoid character of 83. This reduced carbenoid character of 83 could also be observed in reactivity studies. Contrary to classical carbenoids, 83 could thus not be used as reagent for cyclopropanation reactions. However, the still present nucleophilicity could be proven by treatment of 83 with electrophiles like methyl iodide or chlorodiphenylphosphine. Here, the compounds 84a and 84b could be obtained via salt elimination reactions. Additionally, 83 could be applied as carbene precursor for the synthesis of palladium carbene complex 51a under elimination of lithium chloride. The observed reactivity underlined the still present carbenoid character of 83. Furthermore, the potential of 83 in the activation of E–E bonds in different substrates was tested. Whereas the activation of the B–H bond in boranes and the B–B bond in diboranes was not possible with 83, the S–S bond in 2,2‘-dipyridyl and 4,4‘ dipyridyl disulfide could be splitted. The mechanism of this reaction, however, still has to be elucidate
A remarkable reactivity was also observed in the reaction of carbenoid 83 with various secondary phosphines. Here, no addition of the P–H bond to the carbenoid carbon atom occurred, but instead the selective dehydrocoupling of the phosphines to diphosphines via elimination of lithium chloride. It is important to note that this unexpected and so far unknown reactivity could be carried out unter mild reaction conditions (room temperature) using different functionalized phosphines and did not require the use of transition metal complexes. Overall, compound 83 exhibits a huge variety of reactivity patterns. Besides its function as carbene precursor for the synthesis of transition metal carbene complexes, the carbenoid behaviour could also be applied in the activation of S–S and P–H bonds. Future investigations should aim at the extension of the activation potential of 83 to further substrates.
|Advisor:||Daeschlein-Gessner , Viktoria|
|School:||Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)|
|Source:||DAI-C 81/1(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
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