The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) plays a significant role in the fields of airborne gravimetry. The objective of this thesis is to develop reliable GNSS algorithms and software for kinematic highly precise GNSS data analysis in airborne gravimetry. Based on the requirements for practical applications in airborne gravimetry and shipborne gravimetry projects, the core research and the contributions of this thesis are summarized as follows: Estimation Algorithm: Based on the accuracy requirements for GNSS precise positioning in airborne gravimetry, the estimation algorithms of least squares including the elimination of nuisance parameters as well as a two-way Kalman filter are applied to the kinematic GNSS data post-processing. The goal of these adjustment methods is to calculate non-epoch parameters (such as system error estimates or carrier phase ambiguity parameters) using all data in the first step, followed by the calculation of epoch parameters (such as position and velocity parameters of the kinematic platform) at every epoch. These methods are highly efficient when dealing with massive amounts of data, and give the highly precise results for the GNSS data analyzed. Accuracy Evaluation and Reliability Analysis: The accuracy evaluation and reliability analysis of the results from precise kinematic GNSS positioning is studied. A special accuracy evaluation method in GNSS kinematic positioning is proposed, where the known distances among multiple antennas of GNSS receivers are taken as an accuracy evaluation index. The effect of the GNSS receiver clock error in the accuracy evaluation for GNSS kinematic positioning results of a high-speed motion platform is studied and a solution is proposed. Kinematic Positioning Based on Multiple Reference Stations Algorithms: In order to overcome the problem of decreasing accuracy in GNSS relative kinematic positioning for long baselines, a new relative kinematic positioning method based on a priori constraints for multiple reference stations is proposed. This algorithm increases the accuracy and reliability of kinematic positioning results for large regions resp. long baselines. GNSS Precise Positioning Based on Robust Estimation: In order to solve the problem of outliers occurring in positioning results which are caused by the presence of gross errors in the GNSS observations, a robust estimation algorithm is applied to eliminate the effects of gross errors in the results of GNSS kinematic precise positioning. Kinematic Positioning Based on Multiple Kinematic Stations: In airborne gravimetry, multiple antennas of GNSS receivers are usually mounted on the kinematic platform. Firstly, a GNSS kinematic positioning method based on multiple kinematic stations is proposed. Using the known constant distances among the multiple GNSS antennas, a kinematic positioning method based on a priori distance constraints is proposed to improve the reliability of the system. Secondly, such an approach is also used for the estimation of a common atmospheric wet delay parameter among the multiple GNSS antennas mounted on the platform. This method does not only reduce the amount of estimated parameters, but also decreases the correlation among the atmospheric parameters. Kinematic Positioning Based on GNSS Integration: To improve the reliability and accuracy of kinematic positioning, a kinematic positioning method using multiple GNSS systems integration is addressed. Furthermore, a GNSS integration algorithm based on Helmert’s variance components estimation is proposed to adjust the weights in a reasonable way. This improves the results when combining data of the different GNSS systems. Velocity Determination Using GNSS Doppler Data: Airborne gravimetry requires instantaneous velocity results, thus raw Doppler observations are used to determine the kinematic instantaneous velocity in high-dynamic environments. Furthermore, carrier phase derived Doppler observations are used to obtain precise velocity estimates in low-dynamic environments. Then a method of Doppler velocity determination based on GNSS integration with Helmert’s variance components estimation and robust estimation is studied. Software Development and Application: In order to fulfill the actual requirements of airborne as well as shipborne gravimetry on GNSS precise positioning, a software system (HALO_GNSS) for precise kinematic GNSS trajectory and velocity determination for kinematic platforms has been developed. In this software, the algorithms as proposed in this thesis were adopted and applied. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and the HALO_GNSS software, this software is applied in airborne as well as shipborne gravimetry projects of GFZ Potsdam. All results are compared and examined, and it is shown that the applied approaches can effectively improve the reliability and accuracy of the kinematic position and velocity determination. It allows the kinematic positioning with an accuracy of 1-2 cm and the velocity determination with an accuracy of approximately 1 cm/s using raw and approximately 1 mm/s using carrier phase derived Doppler observations.
|School:||Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany)|
|Source:||DAI-C 81/1(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Computer Engineering, Geographic information science, Aerospace engineering|
|Keywords:||Global Navigation Satellite System|
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